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Size and Composition Measurements of Background Aerosol and New Pa...

By: K. N. Bower; M. R. Alfarra; D. R. Worsnop; H. Coe; F. Cavalli; A. Laaksonen; T. Hyötyläinen; P. P. Aalto; J. D. Allan; J. T. Jayne; M. Kulmala

Description: School of Earth, Atmospheric & Environmental Science, University of Manchester, UK. The study of the growth of nucleation-mode particles is important, as this prevents their loss through diffusion and allows them to reach sizes where they may become effective cloud condensation nuclei. Hyytiälä, a forested site in southern Finland, frequently experiences particle nucleation events during the spring and autumn, where particles first appear during the mor...

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298 K Rate Coefficients for the Reaction of Oh with I-c3H7I, N-c3H...

By: J. N. Crowley; S. A. Carl

Description: Max-Planck-Institut f ¨ ur Chemie, Division of Atmospheric Chemistry, Postfach 3060, D-55020 Mainz, Germany. The kinetics of the title reactions were investigated using the laser photolysis - resonance fluorescence method, employing the sequential two-photon dissociation of NO2 in the presence of H2 as the OH source. The 298 K rate constant for OH + C3H8 was found to be (1.15±0.1) × 10-12 cm3

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Observation of a Mesospheric Front in a Dual Duct Over King George...

By: D. Gobbi; V. F. Andrioli; J. V. Bageston; D. C. Fritts; P. P. Batista; R. E. Hibbins; C. M. Wrasse

Description: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), São José dos Campos, Brazil. A mesospheric bore was observed with an all-sky airglow imager on the night of 9–10 July 2007 at Ferraz Station (62° S, 58° W), located on King George island on the Antarctic Peninsula. The observed bore propagated from southwest to northeast with a well defined wave front and a series of crests behind the main front. There was no evidence of dissipation during its propag...

Andrioli, V.F., Clemesha, B.R., Batista, P. P. and Schuch, N. J.: Atmospheric tides and mean winds in the meteor region over Santa Maria (29.78° S; 53.88° W), J. Atmos. Sol-Terr. Phys., 71(17–18), 1864–1876, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2009.07.005, 2009.; Bageston, J. V., Wrasse, C.M., Gobbi, D. Tahakashi, H., and Souza, P. B.: Observation of Mesospheric Gravity Waves at Estação Antártica Comandante Ferraz (62° S), Antarc...

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Tropospheric Ozone Variability in the Tropics from Enso to Mjo and...

By: L. D. Oman; A. R. Douglass; S. E. Strahan; J. R. Ziemke; B. N. Duncan

Description: Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Aura OMI and MLS measurements are combined to produce daily maps of tropospheric ozone beginning October 2004. We show that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related inter-annual change in tropospheric ozone in the tropics is small in relation to combined intra-seasonal/Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) and shorter timescale variability by a factor of ~ 3–10 (largest in the Atlantic). Outgoing longwave ...

Barrett, B. S., Fitzmaurice, S. J., and Pritchard, S. R.: Intraseasonal variability of surface ozone in Santiago, Chile: Modulation by phase of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO), Atmos. Env., 57, 55–62, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.04.040, 2012.; Benedict, J. J., Maloney, E. D., Sobel, A. H., and Frierson, D. M. W.: Gross moist stability and MJO simulations skill in three full-physics GMSs, J. Geophys. Res., 7...

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What Do 14Co Measurements Tell US About Oh? : Volume 7, Issue 4 (1...

By: P. Jöckel; P. Bergamaschi; J. E. Mak; J. Fokke Meirink; D. Lowe; M. C. Krol; S. Houweling; T. Röckmann

Description: Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON), Utrecht, the Netherlands. The possible use of 14CO measurements to constrain hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations in the atmosphere is investigated.14CO is mainly produced in the upper atmosphere from cosmic radiation. During transport to measurement locations at the Earth's surface 14CO is oxidized by OH. In this paper, the sensitivity of 14CO mixing ratio measu...

Bergamaschi, P., Frankenberg, C., Meirink, J. F., Krol, M., Dentener, F., Wagner, T., Platt, U., Kaplan, J. O., Körner, S., Heimann, M., Dlugokencky, E. J., and Goede, A.: Satellite chartography of atmospheric methane from SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT: (II) Evaluation based on inverse model simulations, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., D02304, doi:10.1029/2006JD007268, 2006.; Bergamaschi, P., Lowe, D. C., Manning, M. R., Moss, R., Bromley, T., and Clarkson, T. S.: Transects of atmo...

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Present and Future Impact of Aircraft, Road Traffic and Shipping E...

By: A. Cozic; D. Hauglustaine; S. Szopa; P. Van Velthoven; B. Koffi

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, UMR 8212, IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. In this study, the LMDz-INCA climate-chemistry model and up-to-date global emission inventories are used to investigate the present (2000) and future (2050) impacts of transport emissions (road traffic, shipping and aircraft) on global tropospheric ozone. For the first time, both impacts of emissions and climate changes on transport-in...

Andreae, M. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 955–966, 2001.; Balkanski, Y., Myhre G., Gaus, M., Rädel, G., Highwood, E. J., and Shine, K. P.: Direct radiative effect of aerosols emitted by transport: from road, shipping and aviation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4477–4489, doi:10.5194/acp-10-4477-2010, 2010.; Berntsen, T. and Fuglestvedt, J.: Global tem...

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The Sensitivity of Secondary Organic Aerosol Component Partitionin...

By: D. O. Topping; M. H. Barley; G. McFiggans

Description: Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, School of Earth, Atmospheric & Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK. A large number of calculations of the absorptive partitioning of organic compounds have been made using a number of methods to predict the component vapour pressures, p0, and activity coefficients, Γi, required in the calculations. The sensitivities of the predictions in terms of the conde...

Allan, J. D., Topping, D. O., Good, N., Irwin, M., Flynn, M., Williams, P. I., Coe, H., Baker, A. R., Martino, M., Niedermeier, N., Wiedensohler, A., Lehmann, S., Müller, K., Herrmann, H., and McFiggans, G.: Composition and properties of atmospheric particles in the eastern Atlantic and impacts on gas phase uptake rates, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9299–9314, doi:10.5194/acp-9-9299-2009, 2009.; Aumont, B., Szopa, S., and Madronich, S.: Modelling the evolution of organic carbo...

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No2 Profile Retrieval Using Airborne Multi Axis Uv-visible Skyligh...

By: S. A. Buehler; J. P. Burrows; P. Wang; A. Rozanov; I. Pundt; T. Wagner; M. Bruns; A. Richter; K. P. Heue; U. Platt

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, P.O. Box 33 04 40, 28 359 Bremen, Germany. A recent development in ground-based remote sensing of atmospheric constituents by UV/visible absorption measurements of scattered light is the simultaneous use of several directions with small elevation angles in addition to the traditional zenith-sky pointing. The different light paths through the atmosphere enable the vertical distribution of some atm...

ASTRA: Monatsmittel des 24-stündigen Verkehrs der automatischen Strassenverkehrszählung, Swiss Federal Roads Authority, http://www.verkehrsdaten.ch/e/home.html, 2003.; Barret, B., De Maziere, M., and Demoulin, P.: Retrieval and characterization of ozone profiles from solar infrared spectra at the Jungfraujoch, J. Geophys. Res., 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001298, 2002.; Bovensmann, H., Burrows, J. P., Buchwitz, M., Frerick, J., Noel, S., and Rozanov, V. V.: SCIAMACHY: Mission...

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Fossil Vs. Non-fossil Sources of Fine Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fou...

By: S. Szidat; K.-f. Ho; Y. Han; F. Canonaco; R.-j. Huang; U. Baltensperger; J. Schnelle-kreis; P. Zotter; I. El Haddad; J. G. Slowik; R. Zimmermann; C. Bozzetti; G. Salazar; M. Schwikowski; J.-j. Cao; K. R. Daellenbach; G. Abbaszade; Y.-l. Zhang; A. S. H. Prévôt

Description: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, Freiestrasse 3, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. During winter 2013, extremely high concentrations (i.e., 4–20 times higher than the World Health Organization guideline) of PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm) mass concentrations (24 h samples) were found in four major cities in China including Xi'an, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. Statistical analysis of a comb...

Cao, J. J., Lee, S. C., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Ho, K. F., Zhang, R. J., Jin, Z. D., Shen, Z. X., Chen, G. C., Kang, Y. M., Zou, S. C., Zhang, L. Z., Qi, S. H., Dai, M. H., Cheng, Y., and Hu, K.: Spatial and seasonal distributions of carbonaceous aerosols over China, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D22S11, doi:10.1029/2006JD008205, 2007.; Cao, J. J., Shen, Z. X., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lee, S. C., Tie, X. X., Ho, K. F., ...

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Relationships Among Brewer-dobson Circulation, Double Tropopauses,...

By: T. R. Peevey; C. A. F. Marques; M. A. Olsen; J. M. Castanheira

Description: CESAM, Department of Physics, University of Aveiro, Portugal. The statistical relationships among the variability of the area covered by double tropopause (DT) events, the strength of the tropical upwelling, the variabilities of total column ozone and of lower stratospheric water vapour are analyzed. The QBO and ENSO signals in the double tropopause and tropical upwelling as well as their influence on the statistical relationships are also presente...

Andrews, D. G., Holton, J. R., and Leovy, C. B.: Middle Atmosphere Dynamics, Academic Press, UK, 489 pp., 1987.; Añel, J. A., Antuña, J. C., de la Torre, L., Castanheira, J. M., and Gimeno, L.: Climatological features of global multiple tropopause events, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D00B08, doi:10.1029/2007JD009697, 2008.; Birner, T.: Recent widening of the tropical belt from global tropopause statistics: sensitivities, J. Ge...

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Rarity of Upper-tropospheric Low O3 Concentration Events During Mo...

By: C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer; P. J. Crutzen; P. Nédélec; J. W. M. Cuijpers; W. A. H. Asman; M. G. Lawrence

Description: Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Atmospheric Chemistry Division, P.O. Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany. Only a few previous observations of very low O3 concentrations in the upper troposphere are available. The aim of this study was to examine the rich MOZAIC data set for more. Flights with at least 25 4 s averaged concentrations less than 8 ppbv at pressures lower than 500 hPa measured using commercial aircraft within the MOZAIC proj...

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Measurements of Aerosol Absorption and Scattering in the Mexico Ci...

By: J. S. Gaffney; A. Salcido; T. Castro; N. A. Marley; J. Frederick

Description: Graduate Institute of Technology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR, USA. Measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering were obtained in Mexico City during the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations) field campaign in March 2006. A comparison of aerosol absorption and scattering was obtained in Mexico City at site T0 located in the northern part of Mexico City at the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo ...

Barth, M. C. and Church, A. T.: Regional and global distributions and lifetimes of sulfate aerosols from Mexico City and southeast China, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 30 231–30 239, 1999.; Bergstrom, R. W.: Extinction and absorption coefficients of the atmospheric aerosol as a function of particle size, Beitraege zur Physik der Atmosphaere, 46, 223–234, 1973.; Bergstrom, R. W., Russell, P. B., and Hignett, P.: Wavelength dependence of the absorption of black carbon particles: ...

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Ozone Production and Trace Gas Correlations During the June 2000 M...

By: P. Bonasoni; J. Mühle; H. Fischer; T. S. Rhee; Ch. Gurk; T. Klüpfel; C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer; A. Stohl; R. Königstedt; R. Kormann; U. Parchatka

Description: Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, POB 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany. An intensive measurement campaign was performed in June 2000 at the Mt. Cimone station (44°11' N -- 10°42' E, 2165 m asl, the highest mountain in the northern Italian Apennines) to study photochemical ozone production in the lower free troposphere. In general, average mixing ratios of important trace gases were not very high (121 ± 20 ppbv CO, 0.284 ± 0.220 ppbv NOx

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Impact of Brown and Clear Carbon on Light Absorption Enhancement, ...

By: C. D. Cappa; D. A. Lack

Description: NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, 325 Broadway, Boulder, 80304, CO, USA. The presence of clear coatings on atmospheric black carbon (BC) particles is known to enhance the magnitude of light absorption by the BC cores. Based on calculations using core/shell Mie theory, we demonstrate the enhancement of light absorption (EAbs) by atmospheric black carbon (BC) when coated in mildly absorbing material (C

Schwier, A. N., Shapiro, E. L., Sareen, N., and McNeill, V. F.: Secondary organic material formed by methylglyoxal in aqueous aerosol mimics – Part 1: Surface tension depression and light-absorbing products, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 9, 15541–15565, 2009.; Shapiro, E. L., Szprengiel, J., Sareen, N., Jen, C. N., Giordano, M. R., and McNeill, V. F.: Light-absorbing secondary organic material formed by glyoxal in aqueous aerosol mimics, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2289–2300, ...

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Sulfur Isotope Analysis of Individual Aerosol Particles – a New To...

By: B. W. Sinha; S. Foley; P. Hoppe; M. O. Andreae; J. Huth

Description: Particle Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, P.O. Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany. Understanding the importance of the different oxidation pathways of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to sulfate is crucial for an interpretation of the climate effects of sulfate aerosols. Sulfur isotope analysis of atmospheric aerosol is a well established tool for identifying sources of sulfur in the atmosphere and assessment of anthro...

Cox,~R A. and Penkett,~S A.: Oxidation of atmospheric SO2 by products of ozone-olefin reaction, Nature, 230, 321–322, 1971.; Dentener,~F., Williams,~J., and Metzger,~S.: Aqueous phase reaction of \chemHNO_4: The impact on tropospheric chemistry, J Atmos. Chem., 41, 109–134, 2002.; Derda,~M., and Chmielewski,~A G.: Determination of sulfur isotope ratios in coal combustion processes. Paper presented at the Sixth International Symposium & Exhibition on Environmen...

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Evaluation of the Tropospheric Flows to a Major Southern Hemispher...

By: K. Wang

Description: Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan. Previous studies of the exceptional 2002 Southern Hemisphere (SH) stratospheric warming event lead to some uncertainty, namely the question of whether excessive heat fluxes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are a symptom or cause of the 2002 SH warming event. In this work, we use a hemispheric version of the MM5 model with nudging capability and we devised a...

Allen, D. R., Coy, L., Eckermann, S. D., McCormack, J. P., Manney, G. L., Hogan, T. F., and Kim, Y.-J.: NOGAPS-ALPHA simulations of the 2002 Southern Hemisphere stratospheric major warming, Mon. Weather Rev., 134, 498–518, 2006.; Allen, M. S.: Evaluation of the mountain wave forecast model's stratospheric turbulence simulations, M.S. thesis, 70 pp., Air University, Ohio, 2003.; Andrews, D. G., Holton, J. R., and Leovy, C. B.: Middle atmosphere dynamics, Academic Press, I...

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Natural New Particle Formation at the Coastal Antarctic Site Neuma...

By: R. Hillamo; K. Schmidt; K. Teinilä; R. Weller

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany. We measured condensation particle (CP) concentrations and particle size distributions at the coastal Antarctic station Neumayer (70°39' S, 8°15' W) during two summer campaigns (from 20 January to 26 March 2012 and 1 February to 30 April 2014) and during polar night between 12 August and 27 September 2014 in the particle diameter (Dp

Allan, J. D., Williams, P. I., Najera, J., Whitehead, J. D., Flynn, M. J., Taylor, J. W., Liu, D., Darbyshire, E., Carpenter, L. J., Chance, R., Andrews, S. J., Hackenberg, S. C., and McFiggans, G.: Iodine observed in new particle formation events in the Arctic atmosphere during ACCACIA, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5599–5609, doi:10.5194/acp-15-5599-2015, 2015.; Asmi, E., Frey, A., Virkkula, A., Ehn, M., Manninen, H. E.,...

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A Tropical West Pacific Oh Minimum and Implications for Stratosphe...

By: K. Rosenlof; M. Rex; V. Mohr; D. Weisenstein; K. Krüger; I. Wohltmann; J. Notholt; P. Wennberg; T. Ridder; R. Lehmann; S. Tegtmeier

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany. Most of the short-lived biogenic and anthropogenic chemical species that are emitted into the atmosphere break down efficiently by reaction with OH and do not reach the stratosphere. Here we show the existence of a pronounced minimum in the tropospheric column of ozone over the West Pacific, the main source region for stratospheric air, and suggest a corresponding minimum of the t...

Aschmann, J. and Sinnhuber, B.-M.: Contribution of very short-lived substances to stratospheric bromine loading: uncertainties and constraints, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1203–1219, doi:10.5194/acp-13-1203-2013, 2013.; Berglen, T. F., Berntsen, T. K., Isaksen, I. S. A., and Sundet, J. K.: A global model of the coupled sulfur/oxidant chemistry in the troposphere: The sulfur cycle, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D19310,

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Novel Method of Generation of CA(Hco3)2 and Caco3 Aerosols and Fir...

By: A. Buchholz; K.-p. Müller; Th. F. Mentel; A. Wahner; A. Kiendler-scharr; C. Spindler; A. Trimborn; D. F. Zhao; T. Zhu; J. Borchardt; R. Tillmann

Description: State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China. Atmospheric mineral aerosols contain CaCO3 as a reactive component. A novel method to produce CaCO3 aerosol was developed by spraying Ca(HCO3)2 solutions, which were generated from CaCO3 suspensions and CO2. By aerosol ma...

Allan, J. D., Delia, A. E., Coe, H., Bower, K. N., Alfarra, M. R., Jimenez, J. L., Middlebrook, A. M., Drewnick, F., Onasch, T. B., Canagaratna, M. R., Jayne, J. T., and Worsnop, D. R.: A generalised method for the extraction of chemically resolved mass spectra from aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer data, J. Aerosol Sci., 35, 909–922, 2004.; Buchholz, A.: Entwicklung eines Geräts zur Untersuchung des hygroskopischen Wachstums von organischen Aerosolen, Diploma Thesis, D...

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Secondary Organic Material Formed by Methylglyoxal in Aqueous Aero...

By: E. L. Shapiro; N. Sareen; A. N. Schwier; V. F. McNeill

Description: Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. We show that methylglyoxal forms light-absorbing secondary organic material in aqueous ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate solutions mimicking tropospheric aerosol particles. The light-absorbing products form on the order of minutes, and solution composition continues to change over several days. The results suggest an aldol condensation pathway involving th...

Adamson, A. W. and Gast, A. P.: Physical chemistry of surfaces, Wiley, New York, 1997.; Altieri, K. E., Seitzinger, S. P., Carlton, A. G., Turpin, B. J., Klein, G. C., and Marshall, A. G.: Oligomers formed through in-cloud methylglyoxal reactions: Chemical composition, properties, and mechanisms investigated by ultra-high resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry, Atmos. Environ., 42(7), 1476–1490, 2008.; Anastasiadis, S. H., Chen, J. K., Koberstein, J. T., Siegel, A. F., Sohn...

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