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Small-scale Gravity Waves in Er-2 Mms/Mtp Wind and Temperature Mea...

By: M. J. Alexander; T. P. Bui; L. Wang; M. J. Mahoney

Description: Colorado Research Associates Division, NorthWest Research Associates, Inc., Boulder, CO 80301, USA. ER-2 MMS and MTP wind and temperature measurements during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign in July 2002 were analyzed to retrieve information on small scale gravity waves (GWs) at aircraft's flight level. For a given flight segment, the S-transform was used to search for and identify small horizontal scale GW events, and to estimate the apparent horizontal wavele...

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Atmospheric Submicron Aerosol Composition and Particulate Organic ...

By: D. R. Worsnop; H. Portin; A. Pajunoja; S. Romakkaniemi; J. N. Smith; A. Leskinen; K. E. J. Lehtinen; A. Jaatinen; A. Virtanen; A. Laaksonen; M. Komppula; L. Q. Hao; A. Kortelainen; D. Sueper; P. Miettinen

Description: Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio 70211, Finland. The Puijo aerosol–cloud observation station is a unique measurement site for its location in the mixed region between the boreal forestland and the municipality of Kuopio, Finland. A measurement campaign was carried out at the station during fall 2010. An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-Tof-AMS) was deployed to characterize the atmo...

Aiken, A. C., Salcedo, D., Cubison, M. J., Huffman, J. A., DeCarlo, P. F., Ulbrich, I. M., Docherty, K. S., Sueper, D., Kimmel, J. R., Worsnop, D. R., Trimborn, A., Northway, M., Stone, E. A., Schauer, J. J., Volkamer, R. M., Fortner, E., de Foy, B., Wang, J., Laskin, A., Shutthanandan, V., Zheng, J., Zhang, R., Gaffney, J., Marley, N. A., Paredes-Miranda, G., Arnott, W. P., Molina, L. T., Sosa, G., and Jimenez, J. L.: Mexico City aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using hi...

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Modelling of Cirrus Clouds – Part 2: Competition of Different Nucl...

By: K. M. Gierens; P. Spichtinger

Description: Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland. We study the competition of two different freezing mechanisms (homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing) in the same environment for cold cirrus clouds. To this goal we use the recently developed and validated ice microphysics scheme (Spichtinger and Gierens, 2009a) which distinguishes between ice classes according to their formation process. We investigate cases with pure...

Haag, W. and Kärcher, B.: The impact of aerosols and gravity waves on cirrus clouds at midlatitudes. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D12202, doi:10.1029/2004JD00457, 2004.; Heymsfield, A. and Iaquinta, J.: Cirrus crystal terminal velocities, J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 916–938, 2000.; Fusina, F., Spichtinger, P. Lohmann, U.: The impact of ice supersaturated regions and thin cirrus on radiation in the mid latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., D24S14, doi:10.1029/2007JD008449, 2007.; Gierens, K., S...

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The Impact of Satellite-adjusted NoX Emissions on Simulated NoX an...

By: Y. Choi

Description: Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences,University of Houston, 312 Science & Research Building 1, Houston, TX 77204, USA. We analyze the simulation results from a CMAQ model and GOME-2 NO2 retrievals over the United States for August 2009 to estimate the model-simulated biases of NOx concentrations over six geological regions (Pacific Coast = PC, Rocky Mountains = RM, Lower Middle = LM, Upper Middle = UM, Southeast = SE, Northe...

Beirle, S., Platt, U., Wenig, M., and Wagner, T.: Weekly cycle of NO2 by GOME measurements: a signature of anthropogenic sources, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 2225–2232, doi:10.5194/acp-3-2225-2003, 2003.; Brioude, J., Kim, S.-W., Angevine, W. M., Frost, G. J., Lee, S.-H., McKeen, S. A., Trainer, M., Fehsenfeld, F.C., Holloway, J. S., Ryerson, T. B., Williams, E. J., Petron, G., and Fast, J. D.: Top-down estimate...

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Large-scale Planetary Disturbances in Stratospheric Temperature at...

By: T. Tsuda; M. G. Shepherd

Description: Centre for Research in Earth and Space Science, York University, Toronto, Canada. The global structure and propagation of large-scale (periods >5 days) waves in the Southern Hemisphere summer (December 2006–February 2007) at 60° S–75° S latitude are examined using temperature data from GPS radio occultation measurements by COSMIC/FORMOSAT 3 satellite constellation at 20 km and 30 km altitude. Spectral analysis has revealed eastward propagating planetary...

% vor jede Referenz Anthes, R. A., Berhardt, P. A., Chen, Y., Cucurull, L., Dymond, K. F., Ector, D., Healy, S. B.,. Ho, S.-P, Hunt, D. C., Kuo, Y.-H., Lio, H., Manning, K., McCormick, C., Meehan, T. K., Randel, W. J., Rocken, C., Schreiner, W. S., Sokolovskiy, S. V., Syndergaard, S., Thompson, D., Trenberth, K. E., Wee, T.-K., Yen, N. L., and Zend, Z.: The COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 Mission, Bull. Amer. Meteo. Soc., 89, 313–333, 2008.; Alexander, S., Tsuda, T., and Kawatani, T.:...

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Liquid Particle Composition and Heterogeneous Reactions in a Mount...

By: A. Dörnbrack; D. Lowe; F. Cairo; C. Voigt; A. R. MacKenzie; H. Schlager; M. J. Mahoney

Description: Environmental Science Dept., Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK. Mountain wave polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) were detected on 8 February 2003 above the Scandinavian Mountains by in-situ instruments onboard the M55 Geophysica aircraft. The observations of PSC particle composition, backscatter and chlorine activation are studied with a recently developed dynamical microphysical non-equilibrium box model. Results from the microphysical model, run on q...

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Airborne Measurement of Oh Reactivity During Intex-b : Volume 8, I...

By: W. H. Brune; J. R. Olson; X. Ren; R. E. Shetter; H. B. Singh; S. R. Hall; D. R. Blake; G. W. Sachse; G. S. Diskin; L. G. Huey; J. H. Crawford; R. C. Cohen; B. Heikes; J. Mao; A. Fried

Description: Dept. of Meteorology, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA, USA. The measurement of OH reactivity, the inverse of the OH lifetime, provides a powerful tool to investigate the atmospheric photochemistry. A new airborne OH reactivity instrument was designed and deployed for the first time on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B (INTEX-B) campaign. The OH reactivity was measured by adding OH, generated by ...

Atkinson, R., Baulch, D. L., Cox, R. A., Crowley, J. N., Hampson, R. F., Hynes, R. G., Jenkin, M. E., Rossi, M. J., Troe, J., and IUPAC Subcommittee: Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II: gas phase reactions of organic species, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3625–4055, 2006.; Atkinson, R., Baulch, D. L., Cox, R. A., Crowley, J. N., Hampson, R. F., Hynes, R. G., Jenkin, M. E., Rossi, M. J., and Troe, J.: Evaluated kinetic and photochemical...

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A Modified Micrometeorological Gradient Method for Estimating O3 D...

By: J. W. Munger; X. M. Wang; L. Zhang; Z. Y. Wu

Description: Air Quality Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Toronto, Canada. Small pollutant concentration gradients between levels above a plant canopy result in large uncertainties in estimated air–surface exchange fluxes when using existing micrometeorological gradient methods, including the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM) and the modified Bowen ratio method (MBR). A modified micrometeorological gradient method (MGM) is propos...

Bache, D. H.: Momentum transfer to plant canopies: influence of structure and variable drag, Atmos. Environ., 20, 1369–1378, 1986.; Baldocchi, D.: A multi-layer model for estimating sulfur dioxide deposition to a deciduous oak forest canopy, Atmos. Environ., 22, 869–884, 1988.; Baldocchi, D., Falge, E., Gu, L., Olson, R., Hollinger, D., Running, S., Anthoni, P., Bernhofer, C., Davis, K., and Evans, R.: FLUXNET: A new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ...

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Processing of Soot in an Urban Environment: Case Study from the Me...

By: L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina; B. Zuberi; A. Laskin; D. J. Gaspar; M. J. Iedema; K. S. Johnson; C. Wang; J. P. Cowin

Description: Department of Chemistry and of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. Chemical composition, size, and mixing state of atmospheric particles are critical in determining their effects on the environment. There is growing evidence that soot aerosols play a particularly important role in both climate and human health, but still relatively little is known of their physical and chemical nature. In ...

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Characteristics of the Raindrop Distributions in Rico Shallow Cumu...

By: O. Geoffroy; F. Burnet; A. P. Siebesma

Description: CNRM-GAME, Toulouse, France. The physical properties of rain spectra are generally modeled using analytical distribution, commonly the Gamma law and to a lesser extent the Lognormal law. The majority of studies of the literature focusing on the characterization of rain distribution are based on deep convective cloud observations, mostly at ground level. This study focuses on shallow cumulus rain distribution at every level in the cloudy boundary ...

Baker, B., Mo, Q., Lawson, R. P., O'Connor, D., and Korolev, A.: Drop size distributions and the lack of small drops in RICO rain shafts, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 48, 616–623, 2009.%in list; Best, A. C.: The size distribution of raindrops, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 76, 16–36, 1950.%in list; Brandes, E. A., Zhang, G., and Vivekanandan, J.: An evaluation of a drop distribution–based polarimetric radar rainfall estimator, J. Appl. Meteorol., 42, 652–660, 2003.%in list; Cerr...

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Simulation of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Europe with a 3-d Si...

By: P. Chazette; B. Sportisse; M. Tombette

Description: CEREA, Research and Teaching Center in Atmospheric Environment, Joint Laboratory École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées/EDF R&D, 77455 Champs sur Marne, France. This paper aims at presenting a model-to-data comparison of the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) and of a few sparse data for Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) over Europe for one year. The optical parameters are computed from a size-resolved aerosol model embedded in the POLYPHEMUS system described i...

Boutahar, J., Lacour, S., Mallet, V., Quelo, D., Roustan, Y., and Sportisse, B.: Development and validation of a fully modular platform for numerical modelling of air pollution: POLAIR, Int. J. Env. and Pollution, 22(1/2), 17–28, 2004.; Lohmann, U. and Feichter, J.: Global indirect aerosol effects: a review, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 715–737, 2005.; Baumgardner, D., Raga, G B., Kok, G., Ogren, J., Rosas, I., Baez, A., and Novakov, T.: On the evolution of aerosol properties ...

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Natural and Anthropogenic Atmospheric Mercury in the European Arct...

By: K. A. Pfaffhuber; A. P. Dastoor; L. R. Hole; A. O. Steen; T. Berg; D. A. Durnford

Description: Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim, Norway. It is agreed that gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is converted to reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) during springtime Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Event (AMDE). RGM is associated with aerosols (PHg) provided that there are sufficient aerosols available for the conversion from RGM to PHg to occur.

This study reports the longest time series of GEM, RGM and PHg...

Schroeder, W. H., Anlauf, K. G., Barrie, L. A., Lu, J. Y., Steffen, A., Schneeberger, D. R., and Berg, T.: Arctic springtime depletion of mercury, Nature, 394, 331–332, 1998.; Skov, H., Christensen, J. H., Goodsite, M. E., Heidam, N. Z., Jensen, B., Wahlin, P., and Geernaert, G.: Fate of elemental mercury in the arctic during atmospheric mercury depletion episodes and the load of atmospheric mercury to the arctic, Environ. Sci. Technol., 38, 2373–2382, 2004.; Slemr, F., ...

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A Criterion to Discriminate Between Solar and Cosmic Ray Forcing o...

By: B. Heber; K. Scherer; H. Fichtner

Description: Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany. There is increasing evidence that there exist interstellar-terrestrial relations and that the heliosphere's effectivity to serve as a protecting shield for the Earth, specifically against cosmic rays, is varying in time. Nonetheless, a debate is going on whether, amongst other drivers, the Sun or the cosmic rays are influencing the terrestrial climate, particularly on p...

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Geographic and Seasonal Distributions of Co Transport Pathways and...

By: J. S. Wright; J. H. Jiang; R. Fu; L. Huang; M. Luo

Description: Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA. Past studies have identified various pathways along which carbon monoxide (CO) in the tropical upper troposphere (UT) may have been transported from the surface. However, the roles that these transport pathways play in determining the locations and seasonality of CO in the tropical UT remain unclear. In particular, UT CO peaks during the spring and fall seasons when surf...

Andreae, M. O., Artaxo, P., Fischer, H., Freitas, S. R., Gregoire, J. M., Hansel, A., Hoor P., Kormann, R., Krejci, R., Lange, L., Lelieveld, J., Lindinger, W., Longo, K., Peters, W., de Reus, M., Scheeren, B., Silva-Dias, M. A. F., Strom, J., van Velthoven, P. F. J., and Williams, J.: Transport of biomass burning smoke to the upper troposphere by deep convection in the equatorial region, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 951–954, do...

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Turbulent Collision-coalescence in Maritime Shallow Convection : V...

By: O. Ayala; A. A. Wyszogrodzki; W. W. Grabowski; L.-p. Wang

Description: National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, USA. This paper discusses cloud simulations aiming at quantitative assessment of the effects of cloud turbulence on rain development in shallow ice-free convective clouds. Cloud fields from large-eddy simulations (LES) applying the bin microphysics with the collision kernel enhanced by cloud turbulence are compared to those with the standard gravitational collision kernel. Simulations for a ra...

Ayala, O., Grabowski, W. W., and Wang, L- P.: A hybrid approach for simulating turbulent collisions of hydrodynamically-interacting particles, J. Comput. Phys., 225, 51–73, 2007.; Ayala, O., Rosa, B., Wang, L- P., and Grabowski, W. W.: Effects of turbulence on the geometric collision rate of sedimenting droplets: Part 1: Results from direct numerical simulation, New J. Phys., 10, 075015, doi:10.1088/1367-2630/10/7/075015, 2008a.; Ayala, O., Rosa, B., and Wang, L- P.: Eff...

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Ccn Activation of Fumed Silica Aerosols Mixed with Soluble Polluta...

By: H. Keskinen; M. Dalirian; A. Virtanen; A. Laaksonen; I. Riipinen; L. Ahlm; S. Romakkaniemi; A. Ylisirniö

Description: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM) and the Bolin Centre for Climate research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. Particle-water interactions of completely soluble or insoluble particles are fairly well understood but less is known of aerosols consisting of mixtures of soluble and insoluble components. In this study, laboratory measurements were performed to investigate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of silica particles ...

Albrecht, B. A.: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness, Science, 245, 1228–1230, 1989.; Biskos, G., Russell, L. M., Buseck, P. R., and Martin, S. T.: Nanosize effect on the hygroscopic growth factor of aerosol particles, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L07801, doi:10.1029/2005GL025199, 2006.; Carslaw, K. S., Lee, L. A., Reddington, C. L., Pringle, K. J., Rap, A., Forster, P. M., Mann, G. W., Spracklen, D. V, W...

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Distributions and Radiative Forcings of Various Cloud Types Based ...

By: J. Huang; K. Stamnes; X. Ding; Q. Lv; J. Li; Y. Yi; H. Jin; T. Wang

Description: Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China. Based on four year' 2B-CLDCLASS-Lidar (Radar-Lidar) cloud classification product from CloudSat, we analyze the geographical distributions of different cloud types and their co-occurrence frequency across different seasons, moreover, utilize the vertical distributions of cloud type to further evaluate the cloud...

Ackerman, T. P., Liou, K. N., Valero, F. P. J., and Pfister, L.: Heating rates in tropical anvils, J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 1606–1623, 1988.; Baum, B. A. and Wielicki, B. A.: Cirrus cloud retrieval using infrared sounding data: multilevel cloud errors, J. Appl. Meteorol., 33, 107–117, 1994.; Barker, H. W.: Overlap of fractional cloud for radiation calculations in GCMs: a global analysis using CloudSat and CALIPSO data, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D00A01,

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Satellite-inferred European Carbon Sink Larger Than Expected : Vol...

By: O. Schneising; M. Hilker; J. Heymann; Y. Yoshida; H. Bovensmann; F. Hase; T. MacHida; O. Hasekamp; A. Butz; C. Gerbig; M. Buchwitz; T. Nehrkorn; J. Notholt; J. P. Burrows; M. Reuter; H. Bösch; C. W. O'Dell; N. M. Deutscher; R. Sussmann; Y. Sawa; D. Pillai; H. Matsueda; T. Warneke; R. Kivi; R. Parker

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. Current knowledge about the European terrestrial biospheric carbon sink, from the Atlantic to the Urals, relies upon bottom-up inventory and surface flux inverse model estimates (e.g., 0.27 ± 0.16 Gt C a−1 for 2000–2005 5 (Schulze et al., 2009), 0.17 ± 0.44 Gt C a−1 for 2001–2007 (Peters et al., 2010), 0.45 ± 0.40 Gt C a−1 for 2010 (Chevalli...

Basu, S., Guerlet, S., Butz, A., Houweling, S., Hasekamp, O., Aben, I., Krummel, P., Steele, P., Langenfelds, R., Torn, M., Biraud, S., Stephens, B., Andrews, A., and Worthy, D.: Global CO2 fluxes estimated from GOSAT retrievals of total column CO2, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8695–8717, doi:10.5194/acp-13-8695-2013, 2013.; Bergamaschi, P., Houweling, S., Segers, A., Krol, M., Frankenberg, C., Schee...

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Analysis of Nucleation Events in the European Boundary Layer Using...

By: A. Hamed; S. Mikkonen; A. I. Hienola; M. Kulmala; J.-p. Pietikäinen; W. Birmili; A. Laaksonen

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, P. O. Box 503, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. This work describes improvements in the regional aerosol–climate model REMO-HAM in order to simulate more realistically the process of atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). A new scheme was implemented to simulate OH radical concentrations using a proxy approach based on observations and also accounting for the effects of clouds upon OH concentrations. Second, the nucleat...

\newblock Spracklen, D. V., Carslaw, K. S., Kulmala, M., Kerminen, V.-M., Mann, G. W., and Sihto, S.-L.: The contribution of boundary layer nucleation events to total particle concentrations on regional and global scales, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 5631–5648, doi:10.5194/acp-6-5631-2006, 2006.; Spracklen, D. V., Carslaw, K. S., Kulmala, M., Kerminen, V.-M., Sihto, S.-L., Riipinen, I., Merikanto, J., Mann, G. W., Chipperfi...

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Single Particle Characterization of Black Carbon Aerosol in the No...

By: J. J. Cao; T. F. Hu; J. P. Schwarz; R. S. Gao; D. W. Fahey; Q. Y. Wang

Description: Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China. Refractory black carbon (rBC) mass, size distribution, and mixing state were measured with a ground-based Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) at Qinghai Lake (QHL), a rural area in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau of China, during October 2011. The average measured rBC mass concentration of 0.36 Μg STP-m−3 is significantly higher than the...

Bodhaine, B. A.: Aerosol absorption measurements at Barrow, Mauna Loa and the South Pole, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 8967–8975, 1995.; Baumgardner, D., Raga, G., Peralta, O., Rosas, I., Castro, T., Kuhlbusch, T., John, A., and Petzold, A.: Diagnosing black carbon trends in large urban areas using carbon monoxide measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8342, doi:10.1029/2001JD000626, 2002.; Baumgardner, D., Kok, G. L., and Raga,...

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