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Land Use Change Suppresses Precipitation : Volume 9, Issue 3 (08/0...

By: T. Lyons; W. Junkermann; U. Nair; J. Hacker

Description: Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IMK-IFU, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. A feedback loop between regional scale deforestation and climate change was investigated in an experiment using novel, small size airborne platforms and instrument setups. Experiments were performed in a worldwide unique natural laboratory in Western Australia, characterized by two adjacent homogeneous observation areas with distinctly different land use characteristics. Conversion o...

Benison, K. C.: Sedimentology of Acid Saline Lakes in Southern Western Australia: Newly Described Processes and Products of an Extreme Environment, J. Sediment. Res., 366–388, doi:10.2110/jsr.2007.038, 2007.; Chin, M., Kahn, R. A., and Schwartz, S. E. (Eds.): Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Impacts on Climate, a report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, NASA, Washington, D.C., USA, 2009.; Dusek, U., Frank, G. P.,...

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A Permanent Aerosol Layer at the Tropical Tropopause Layer Driven ...

By: P. Stier; Q. Bourgeois; I. Bey

Description: Institute of Environmental Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. We use observations from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) satellite instrument and a global aerosol-climate model to document an aerosol layer that forms in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) over the Southern Asian and Indian Ocean region. CALIOP observations suggest that the aerosol layer...

Anderson, T. L., Masonis, S. J., Covert, D. S., Charlson, R. J., and Rood, M. J.: In situ measurement of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio at a polluted continental site, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 26907–26915, 2000.; Bourgeois, Q. and Bey, I.: Pollution transport efficiency toward the {A}rctic: {s}ensitivity to aerosol scavenging and source regions, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D08213, doi:10.1029/2010JD015096, 2011.; B...

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Mass Spectrometry of Refractory Black Carbon Particles from Six So...

By: B. Sierau; M. Gysel; A. Keller; M. Laborde; J. C. Corbin; A. A. Mensah; U. Lohmann; A. Petzold; J. Kim; T. B. Onasch

Description: ETH Zurich, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Switzerland. We discuss the major mass spectral features of different types of refractory carbonaceous particles, ionized after laser vapourization with an Aerodyne High-Resolution Soot-Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS). The SP-AMS was operated with a switchable 1064 nm laser and a 600 °C thermal vapourizer, yielding respective measurements of the refractory and non-refractory p...

Alfarra, M. R.: Insights Into Atmospheric Organic Aerosols Using An Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Manchester, 2004.; Bladt, H., Schmid, J., Kireeva, E. D., Popovicheva, O. B., Perseantseva, N. M., Timofeev, M. A., Heister, K., Uihlein, J., Ivleva, N. P., and Niessner, R.: Impact of Fe content in laboratory-produced soot aerosol on its composition, structure, and thermo-chemical properties, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 4...

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Chemical Characteristics Assigned to Trajectory Clusters During th...

By: J. Williams; H. Ziereis; R. Kormann; M. De Reus; M. Traub; J. De Gouw; J. Lelieveld; H. Schlager; H. Fischer; C. Warneke; R. Holzinger; J. Heland

Description: Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany. During the Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study (MINOS) in August 2001 a total of 14 measurement flights were performed with the DLR Falcon aircraft from Heraklion, Crete. One objective of this campaign was to investigate the role of long-range transport of pollutants into the Mediterranean area. An analysis of 5-day back trajectories indicates that in the lower troposphere (0–4 km) air...

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Size-resolved Aerosol Composition and Its Link to Hygroscopicity a...

By: P. Campuzano-jost; E. J. T. Levin; J. L. Jimenez; S. M. Kreidenweis; D. A. Day; P. J. Demott; B. B. Palm; A. J. Prenni; J. N. Smith; P. M. Winkler

Description: Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA. Aerosol hygroscopicity describes the ability of a particle to take up water and form a cloud droplet. Modeling studies have shown sensitivity of precipitation-producing cloud systems to the availability of aerosol particles capable of serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and hygroscopicity is a key parameter controlling the number of available CCN. Continental ae...

Albrecht, B. A.: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227–1230, 1989.; Andreae, M. O., and Rosenfeld, D.: Aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. Part 1. The nature and sources of cloud-active aerosols, Earth-Sci. Rev., 89, 13–41, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2008.03.001, 2008.; Asa-Awuku, A., Nenes, A., Gao, S., Flagan, R. C., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Water-soluble SOA from Alkene ...

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A Numerical Modelling Study on Regional Mercury Budget for Eastern...

By: X. Lin; Y. Tao

Description: Kinectrics, 800 Kipling Avenue, Toronto, M8Z 6C4, Canada. In this study, we have integrated an up-to-date physio-chemical transformation mechanism of Hg into the framework of US EPA's CMAQ model system. In addition, the model adapted detailed calculations of the air-surface exchange for Hg to properly describe Hg re-emissions and dry deposition from and to natural surfaces. The mechanism covers Hg in three categories, elemental Hg (Hg0

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Modeling the Transport of Very Short-lived Substances Into the Tro...

By: E. L. Atlas; B. M. Sinnhuber; S. M. Schauffler; J. Aschmann

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. The transport of very short-lived substances into the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere is investigated by a three-dimensional chemical transport model using archived convective updraft mass fluxes (or detrainment rates) from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast's ERA-Interim reanalysis. Large-scale vertical velocities are calculated from diabatic...

Chipperfield, M.P.: New Version of the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT Off-Line Chemical Transport Model: Intercomparison of Stratospheric Tracer Experiments, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 132, 1179–1203, doi:10.1256/qj.05.51, 2006.; Dessler, A. E.: The effect of deep, tropical convection on the tropical tropopause layer, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D3), 4033, doi:10.1029/2001JD000511, 2002.; Dessler, A. E. and Sherwood, S. C., Effect of convection on the summertime extratropical lower stratosphere...

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Long Term Measurements of Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Ammoni...

By: V. Yoboué; C. Delon; B. Diop; L. Sigha-nkamdjou; C. Galy-lacaux; A. Akpo; J. P. Tathy; E. Gardrat; J. P. Lacaux; F. Lavenu; D. Laouali; E. Mougin; M. Adon; P. Castera; J. Pienaar; H. Al Ourabi

Description: Laboratoire de Physique de l'Atmosphère, Université de Cocody, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. In this paper, we present the long term monitoring of ambient gaseous concentrations within the framework of the IDAF (IGAC-DEBITS-AFRICA) program. This study proposes for the first time to study long term gases concentrations (1998–2007) by determining the ambient concentration of the inorganic gases, i.e., SO2, NO2, HNO3,...

Abbadie, L., Gignoux, J., Le Roux, X., and Lepage, M.: Lamto: Structure, Functioning, and Dynamics of a Savanna Ecosystem, Ecological Studies, Springer, New York, 179, 455 pp., 2006.; Andreae, M. O., Chapuis, A., Cros, B., Fontan, J., Helas, G., Justice, C., Kaufman, Y. J., Minga, A., and Nganga, D.: Ozone and Aitken nuclei over Equatorial Africa: airborne observations during DECAFE 88, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 6137–6148, 1992.; Arndt, R., Carmichael, G. R., Streets, D. G.,...

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Sulphur Dioxide as a Volcanic Ash Proxy During the April–may 2010 ...

By: H. E. Thomas; A. J. Prata

Description: Department of Geological Engineering and Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, USA. The volcanic ash cloud from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April and May 2010 resulted in unprecedented disruption to air traffic in Western Europe causing significant monetary loses and highlighting the importance of efficient volcanic cloud monitoring. The feasibility of using SO2 as a tracer for the ash released during the e...

Bernard, A. and Rose, W.: The injection of sulfuric acid aerosols in the stratosphere by the El Chichón volcano and its related hazards to the international air traffic, Nat. Hazards, 3, 59–67, doi:10.1007/bf00144974, 1990.; Berrisford, P. D., Dee, K., Fielding, M., Fuentes, P., Kallberg, S., Kobayashi, S., and Uppala, S.: The ERA-Interim archive, Report Series. 1, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfi...

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The Influence of African Air Pollution on Regional and Global Trop...

By: A. M. Aghedo; S. Rast; M. G. Schultz

Description: Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany. We investigate the relative importance of African biomass burning, biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC), lightning and anthropogenic emissions to the tropospheric ozone budget over Africa and globally using a coupled global chemistry climate model. Our model studies indicate that the photochemical surface ozone concentration may rise by up to 50 ppbv in the burning region during the bioma...

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Impacts of 20Th Century Aerosol Emissions on the South Asian Monso...

By: L. Guo; E. J. Highwood; A. G. Turner

Description: Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, P.O. Box 243, Reading, RG6 6BB, UK. Comparison of single-forcing varieties of 20th century historical experiments in a subset of models from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) reveals that South Asian summer monsoon rainfall increases towards the present day in Greenhouse Gas (GHG)-only experiments with respect to pre-industrial levels, while it decreases in anthrop...

Albrecht, B. A.: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227–1230, doi:10.1126/science.245.4923.1227, 1989.; Bollasina, M. A., Ming, Y., and Ramaswamy, V.: Anthropogenic aerosols and the weakening of the South Asian summer monsoon, Science, 334, 502–505, doi:10.1126/science.1204994, 2011.; Acharya, P. and Sreekesh, S.: Seasonal...

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The Composition of Nucleation and Aitken Modes Particles During Co...

By: K. E. J. Lehtinen; Y. J. Yoon; A. Laaksonen; J. Joutsensaari; P. Vaattovaara; C. D. O'Dowd; P. E. Huttunen

Description: University of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland. Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments world wide. Organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucl...

Aalto, P. P. and Kulmala, M.: Using a cloud condensation nuclei counter to study CCN properties and concentrations, Boreal Environ. Res., 5, 349–359, 2000.; Andreae, M. O. and Crutzen, P. J.: Atmospheric aerosols: Biogeochemical sources and role in atmospheric chemistry, Science, 276, 1052–1058, 1997.; Alfonso, L. and Raga, B.: The influence of organic compounds on the development of precipitation acidity in maritime clouds, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 1097–1111, 2004.; Atkin...

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Semi-continuous Gas and Inorganic Aerosol Measurements at a Finnis...

By: U. Makkonen; A. Virkkula; H. Hakola; J. Mäntykenttä; P. Keronen; V. Vakkari; P. P. Aalto

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, 00560, Helsinki, Finland. Concentrations of 5 gases (HCl, HNO3, HONO, NH3, SO2) and 8 major inorganic ions in particles (Cl, NO3, SO42−, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) were measured with an online monitor MARGA 2S in two size ranges, Dp < 2.5 μm and D...

Acker, K. and Möller, D.: Atmospheric variation of nitrous acid at different sites in Europe, Environ. Chem., 4, 242–255, doi:10.1071/EN07023, 2007.; Acker, K., Spindler, G., and Brüggemann, E.: Nitrous and nitric acid measurements during the INTERCOMP2000 campaign in Melpitz, Atmos. Environ., 38, 6497–6505, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.08.030, 2004.; Asman, W. A. H....

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Heterogeneous Reaction of N2O5 with Airborne Tio2 Particles and It...

By: N. L. Abraham; P. Braesicke; M. J. Tang; I. M. Watson; J. McGregor; J. A. Pyle; A. T. Archibald; L. Rkiouak; F. D. Pope; P. J. Telford; R. A. Cox; M. Kalberer

Description: Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK. Injection of aerosol particles (or their precursors) into the stratosphere to scatter solar radiation back into space has been suggested as a solar-radiation management scheme for the mitigation of global warming. TiO2 has recently been highlighted as a possible candidate particle because of its high refractive index, but its impact on stratospheric chemistry via heterog...

Al-Hosney, H. A. and Grassian, V. H.: Water, sulfur dioxide and nitric acid adsorption on calcium carbonate: A transmission and ATR-FTIR study, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 7, 1266–1276, 2005.; Ammann, M., Cox, R. A., Crowley, J. N., Jenkin, M. E., Mellouki, A., Rossi, M. J., Troe, J., and Wallington, T. J.: Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume VI – heterogeneous reactions with liquid substrates, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8045–8228,

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Field Measurements of Hygroscopic Properties and State of Mixing o...

By: K. Hämeri; F. Stratmann; M. Kulmala; M. Väkevä

Description: University of Helsinki, Department of Physical Sciences, Helsinki, Finland. An Ultrafine Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (UF-TDMA) has been used in several field campaigns over the last few years. The investigations were focused on the origin and properties of nucleation event aerosols, which are observed frequently in various environments. This paper gives a summary of the results of 10 nm and 20 nm particle hygroscopic properties from...

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Factor Analytical Modeling of C2–c7 Hydrocarbon Sources at an Urba...

By: S. Reimann; J. Staehelin; C. Hueglin; B. Buchmann; R. Locher; V. A. Lanz

Description: Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Air Pollution and Environmental Technology, 8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland. Hourly measurements of 13 volatile hydrocarbons (C2–C7) were performed at an urban background site in Zurich (Switzerland) in the years 1993–1994 and again in 2005–2006. Changes in hydrocarbon profiles and source strengths were recovered by positive matrix factorization (PMF). ...

Anttila, P., Paatero, P., Tapper, U., and Järvinen, O.: Source identification of bulk wet deposition in Finland by positive matrix factorization, Atmos. Environ., 29, 1705–1718, 1995.; BAFU: Luftschadstoff-Emissionen des Stassenverkehrs 1950–2020. Nachtrag. Schriftenreihe UMWELT Nr. 225, Swiss Federal Office for the Environment FOEN, Bern, 2000.; BAFU: Abschätzung der Altlastenrelevanz von Methyl-tert-butylether (MTBE). Swiss Federal Office for the Environment FOEN, Bern...

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Study of Global Cloud Droplet Number Concentration with A-train Sa...

By: J. Riedi; C. R. Trepte; D. M. Winker; S. Zeng; Y.-x. Hu

Description: Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) is an important microphysical property of liquid clouds that impacts radiative forcing, precipitation and is pivotal for understanding cloud–aerosol interactions. Current studies of this parameter at global scales with satellite observations are still challenging, especially because retrieval algorithms developed for passive sensors (i.e., MODerate Resolutio...

Ayers, G. P. and Cainey, J. M.: The CLAW hypothesis: a review of the major developments, Environ. Chem., 4, 366–374, 2007.; Barahona, D., Sotiropoulou, R., and Nenes A.: Global distribution of cloud droplet number concentration, autoconversion rate, and aerosol indirect effect under diabatic droplet activation, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D09203, doi:10.1029/2010JD015274, 2011.; Bréon, F.-M. and Doutriaux-Boucher, M.: A compa...

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Horizontal Variability of Aerosol Optical Depth Observed During th...

By: Y. Shinozuka; J. Redemann

Description: Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, Sonoma, California, USA. We present statistics on the horizontal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) directly measured from the NASA P-3 aircraft. Our measurements during two contrasting phases (in Alaska and Canada) of the ARCTAS mission arguably constrain the variability in most aerosol environments common over the globe. In the Canada phase, which features local emissions, 499 nm AOD has a median rela...

Jacob, D. J., Crawford, J. H., Maring, H., Clarke, A. D., Dibb, J. E., Emmons, L. K., Ferrare, R. A., Hostetler, C. A., Russell, P. B., Singh, H. B., Thompson, A. M., Shaw, G. E., McCauley, E., Pederson, J. R., and Fisher, J. A.: The Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission: design, execution, and first results, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5191–5212, doi:10.5194/acp-...

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Quantitative Performance Metrics for Stratospheric-resolving Chemi...

By: V. Eyring; D. W. Waugh

Description: Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. A set of performance metrics is applied to stratospheric-resolving chemistry-climate models (CCMs) to quantify their ability to reproduce key processes relevant for stratospheric ozone. The same metrics are used to assign a quantitative measure of performance (grade) to each model-observations comparison shown in Eyring et al. (2006). A wide range of grades is obtai...

Austin, J.: A three-dimensional coupled chemistry-climate model simulation of past stratospheric trends, J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 218–232, 2002.; Akiyoshi, H., Sugita, T., Kanzawa, H., and Kawamoto, N.: Ozone perturbations in the Arctic summer lower stratosphere as a reflection of NOx chemistry and planetary scale wave activity, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D03304, doi:10.1029/2003JD003632, 2004.; Austin, J., Shindell, D., Beagley, S. R., Brühl, C., Dameris, M., Manzini,...

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Chemical Ozone Loss in the Arctic Winter 1991–1992 : Volume 7, Iss...

By: R. Müller; U. Schmidt; R. J. Salawitch; J. M. Russell III; S. Tilmes; C. C. Camy-peyret; C. R. Webster; H. Oelhaf

Description: National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, USA. Chemical ozone loss in winter 1991–1992 is recalculated based on observations of the HALOE satellite instrument, ER-2 aircraft measurements and balloon data. HALOE satellite observations are shown to be reliable in the lower stratosphere below 400 K, at altitudes where profiles are most likely disturbed by the enhanced sulfate aerosols, as a result of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in June 199...

Anderson, J G., Toohey, D W., and Brune, W H.: Free radicals within the Antarctic vortex: The role of CFCs in Antarctic ozone loss, Science\/, 251\/, 39–46, 1991.; Bauer, R., Engel, A., Franken, H., Klein, E., Kulessa, G., Schiller, C., and Schmidt, U.: Monitoring the vertical structure of the Arctic polar vortex over northern Scandinavia during EASOE: Regular N2O profile observations, Geophys. Res. Lett.\/, 21\/, 1211–1214, 1994.; Brandtjen, R., Klüpfel, T., ...

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