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Evaporation: a New Vapor Pressure Estimation Method for Organic Mo...

By: J.-f. Müller; K. Ceulemans; S. Compernolle

Description: Belgian Institute for Space-aeronomy, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium. We present EVAPORATION (Estimation of VApour Pressure of ORganics, Accounting for Temperature, Intramolecular, and Non-additivity effects), a method to predict vapour pressure p0 of organic molecules needing only molecular structure as input. The method is applicable to zero-, mono- and polyfunctional molecules. A simple formula to describe log

Aldrich: Catalog Handbook of Fine Chemicals, Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc., Milwaukee, WI, USA, 1990.; Ambrose, D. and Walton, J.: Vapour pressures up to their critical temperatures of normal alkanes and 1-alkanols, Pure Appl. Chem., 61, 1395–1403, 1989.; Asher, W. E. and Pankow, J. F.: Vapor pressure prediction for alkenoic and aromatic organic compounds by a UNIFAC-based group contribution method, Atmos. Environ., 40, 3588–3600, 2006.; Asher, W. E., Pankow, J. F., Erd...

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Significant Impact of the East Asia Monsoon on Ozone Seasonal Beha...

By: Z. F. Wang; P. Pochanart; H. Akimoto; I. Uno; Y. J. He; J. Li

Description: Earth System Science and Technology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. The impact of the East Asia monsoon on the seasonal behavior of O3 in the boundary layer of Eastern China and the west Pacific region was analyzed for 2004–2006 by means of full-year nested chemical transport model simulations and continuous observational data obtained from three inland mountain sites in central and eastern China and three oceanic sites in the west Pacifi...

Ahammed, Y. N., Reddy, R. R., Gopal, K. R., Narasimhulu, K. B., Baba, D., Reddy, L. S., and Rao, T. V.: Seasonal variation of the surface ozone and its precursor gases during 2001–2003, measured at Anantapur (14.62° N), a semi-arid site in India, Atmos. Res., 80(2–3), 151–164, 2006.; Akimoto, H., Mukai, H., Nishikawa, M., Murano, K., Hatakeyama, S., Liu, C. M., Buhr, M., Hsu, K. J., Jaffe, D. A., Zhang, L., Honrath, R., Merrill, J. T., and Newell, R. E.: Long-range trans...

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Water Vapour Profiles by Ground-based Ftir Spectroscopy: Study for...

By: T. Blumenstock; F. Hase; M. Schneider

Description: IMK-ASF, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and Universität Karlsruhe, Germany. The sensitivity of ground-based instruments measuring in the infrared with respect to tropospheric water vapour content is generally limited to the lower and middle troposphere. The large vertical gradients and variabilities avoid a better sensitivity for the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region. In this work an optimised retrieval is presented and it is demonstrate...

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Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (Pan) and Peroxyacetic Acid (Paa) Measurement...

By: J. Thieser; N. Pouvesle; G. Schuster; H. Fischer; R. Axinte; G. J. Phillips; J. Williams; J. N. Crowley; J. Lelieveld

Description: Department of Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Hahn-Meitner Weg 1, 55128 Mainz, Germany. We describe measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (CH3C(O)O2NO2, PAN) and peroxyacetic acid (CH3C(O)OOH, PAA) in the Boreal forest using iodide chemical ionization mass spectrometry (ICIMS). The measurements were made during the Hyytiälä United Measurement of Photochemistry and Particles – Comprehe...

Atkinson, R. and Arey, J.: Gas-phase tropospheric chemistry of biogenic volatile organic compounds: a review, Atmos. Environ., 37, S197–S219, 2003.; Atkinson, R., Baulch, D. L., Cox, R. A., Crowley, J. N., Hampson, R. F., Hynes, R. G., Jenkin, M. E., Rossi, M. J., and Troe, J.: Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume I – gas phase reactions of \chem{O_x}, HOx, NOx and \chem{SO_x} species, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 146...

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Uptake of Ho2 Radicals Onto Arizona Test Dust Aerosols : Volume 14...

By: L. K. Whalley; M. T. Baeza-romero; D. E. Heard; P. S. J. Matthews

Description: School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. Uptake coefficients for HO2 radicals onto Arizona Test Dust (ATD) aerosols were measured at room temperature and atmospheric pressure using an aerosol flow tube and the sensitive Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (FAGE) technique, enabling HO2 concentrations in the range 3–10 × 108 molecule cm−3 to be investigated. The uptake coef...

Ammann, M. and Pöschl, U.: Kinetic model framework for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions – Part 2: Exemplary practical applications and numerical simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 6025–6045, doi:10.5194/acp-7-6025-2007, 2007.; Bedjanian, Y., Romanias, M. N., and El Zein, A.: Uptake of HO2 radicals on Arizona Test Dust, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6461–6471,

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Temporal Variability of Mineral Dust Concentrations Over West Afri...

By: A. Diallo; B. Chatenet; J. L. Rajot; A. Zakou; I. Koné; B. Marticorena; T. Ndiaye; A. Maman; M. Coulibaly; S. Traoré

Description: LISA, Universités Paris Est-Paris Diderot-Paris 7, UMR 7583, Créteil, France. The Sahelian belt is known to be a region where the mineral dust content is among the highest observed on Earth. In the framework of the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) International Program, a transect of 3 ground based stations, the Sahelian Dust Transect (SDT), has been deployed in order to obtain quantitative information on the mineral dust content and it...

Alastuey A., Querol, X., Castillo, S., Escudero, M., Avila, A., Cuevas, E., Torres, C., Romero, P.-M., Exposito, F., Carcia, O., Diaz, J.P., Van Dindenen, R., and Putaud, J. P.: Characterisation of TSP and PM2.5 at Izana and Sta. Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) during a Saharan Dust Episode (July 2002), Atmos. Envir., 36(26), 4715–4728, 2005.; Alonso-Perez, S., Cuevas, E., Querol, X., Viana, X., M., and Guerra, J. C., Impact of the Saharan dust outbre...

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Reply to: Tropical Cirrus and Water Vapor: an Effective Earth Infr...

By: A. Y. Hou; M.-d. Chou; R. S. Lindzen

Description: Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA. In assessing the iris effect suggested by Lindzen et al. (2001), Fu et al. (2002) found that the response of high-level clouds to the sea surface temperature had an effect of reducing the climate sensitivity to external radiative forcing, but the effect was not as strong as LCH found. The approach of FBH to specifying longwave emission and cloud albedos ...

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Comparison of Omi Ozone and Uv Irradiance Data with Ground-based M...

By: F. Auriol; B. Bonnel; A. Tanskanen; V. Buchard; J. Lenoble; B. Bojkov; C. Brogniez; P. Veefkind

Description: Laboratoire d'Optique Atmosphérique, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, France. Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), launched in July 2004, is dedicated to the monitoring of the Earth's ozone, air quality and climate. OMI is the successor of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments and provides among other atmospheric and radiometric quantities the total column of ozone (TOC), the surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance at several...

Arola, A., Kazadzis, S., Krotkov, N., Bais, A., Groebner, J., and Herman, J. R.: Assessment of TOMS UV bias due to absorbing aerosols, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D23211, doi:10.1029/2005JD005913, 2005.; Bais, A., Gardiner, B., Slaper, H., et al.: SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers, J. Geophys. Res., 106, D12, 12 509–12 525, 2001.; Balis, D., Kroon, M., Koukouli, M. E., Brinksma, E. J., Labow, G., Veefkind, J. P., and McPeters, R. D.: Validation of Ozone...

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Multiday Production of Condensing Organic Aerosol Mass in Urban an...

By: A. Hodzic; R. Valorso; S. Madronich; B. Aumont; M. Camredon; J. Lee-taylor

Description: National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307, USA. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production in air masses containing either anthropogenic or biogenic (terpene-dominated) emissions is investigated using the explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism generator GECKO-A. Simulations show several-fold increases in SOA mass continuing for several days in the urban outflow, even as the initial air parcel is diluted into the regional...

Aiken, A. C., DeCarlo, P. F., Kroll, J. H., Worsnop, D. R., Huffman, J. A., Docherty, K. S., Ulbrich, I. M., Mohr, C., Kimmel, J. R., Sueper, D., Sun, Y., Zhang, Q., Trimborn, A., Northway, M., Ziemann, P. J., Canagaratna, M. R., Onasch, T. B., Alfarra, M. R., Prevot, A. S. H., Dommen, J., Duplissy, J., Metzger, A., Baltensperger, U., and Jimenez, J. L.: O/C and OM/OC ratios of primary, secondary, and ambient organic aerosols with high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol m...

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Synoptic-scale Meteorological Control on Reactive Bromine Producti...

By: L. Neary; A. Lupu; J. C. McConnell; M. P. Chipperfield; J. Jarosz; C. E. Sioris; J. W. Kaminski; A. Richter; K. Toyota; S.-l. Gong; C. A. McLinden; R. Kwok; K. Semeniuk

Description: Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Episodes of high bromine levels and surface ozone depletion in the springtime Arctic are simulated by an online air-quality model, GEM-AQ, with gas-phase and heterogeneous reactions of inorganic bromine species and a simple scheme of air-snowpack chemical interactions implemented for this study. Snowpack on sea ice is assumed to be the only source of bromine ...

Abbatt, J.: Interactions of atmospheric trace gases with ice surfaces: Adsorption and reaction, Chem. Rev., 103, 4783–4800, 2003.; Adams, J. W., Holmes, N. S., and Crowley, J. N.: Uptake and reaction of HOBr on frozen and dry NaCl/NaBr surfaces between 253 and 233 K, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2, 79–91, doi:10.5194/acp-2-79-2002, 2002.; Albert, M. R., Grannas, A. M., Bottenheim, J., Shepson, P. B., and Perron, F. E.: Processes and properties of snow-air transfer in the high Arc...

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Observed Poleward Expansion of the Hadley Circulation Since 1979 :...

By: Q. Fu; Y. Hu

Description: Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China. Using three meteorological reanalyses and three outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) datasets, we show that the Hadley circulation has a significant poleward expansion of about 2 to 4.5 degrees of latitude since 1979. The three reanalyses along with the MSU data all indicate that the poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation in each hemisphere occurs during its spring and fall seasons. R...

Crowley, T. J. and Zachos, J. C.: Warm Climate in Earth History, edited by: Huber, B. T., Macleod, K. G., and Wing, S. L, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2000.; Chen, J. Y., Carlson, B. E., and Del Genio, A. D.: Evidence for strengthening of the tropical general circulation in the 1990s, Science, 295, 838–841, 2002.; Diaz, H. F. and Bradley, B.: The Hadley Circulation: Present, Past and Future. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 2004.; Fu, Q., Johanson, C. M....

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Seasonal Variation in Vertical Volatile Compounds Air Concentratio...

By: L. Copolovici; S. M. Noe; Ü. Niinemets; K. Hüve

Description: Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia. The vertical distribution of ambient biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) concentrations within a hemiboreal forest canopy was investigated over a period of one year. Variability in temporal and spatial isoprene concentrations can be mainly explained by biogenic emissions from d...

Arneth, A., Harrison, S. P., Zaehle, S., Tsigaridis, K., Menon, S., Bartlein,  P. J., Feichter, J., Korhola, A., Kulmala, M., O'Donnell, D., Schurgers, G., Sorvari, S., and Vesala, T.: Terrestrial biogeochemical feedbacks in the climate system, Nat. Geosci., 3, 525–532, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ngeo905, 2010.; Atkinson, R.: Atmospheric chemistry of VOCs and NOx, Atmos. Environ., 34, 2063–2101,

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Historical (1850–2000) Gridded Anthropogenic and Biomass Burning E...

By: V. Naik; C. Granier; T. C. Bond; J. R. McConnell; V. Eyring; J. Van Aardenne; E. Stehfest; M. G. Schultz; D. Shindell; D. Lee; A. Mieville; O. R. Cooper; C. Liousse; D. P. Van Vuuren; S. J. Smith; N. Mahowald; B. Owen; M. Kainuma; K. Riahi; A. Heil; J.-f. Lamarque; Z. Klimont

Description: National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, USA. We present and discuss a new dataset of gridded emissions covering the historical period (1850–2000) in decadal increments at a horizontal resolution of 0.5° in latitude and longitude. The primary purpose of this inventory is to provide consistent gridded emissions of reactive gases and aerosols for use in chemistry model simulations needed by climate models for the Climate Model Intercomparison Pr...

Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 955–966, 2001.; Andres, R. J., Fielding, D. J., Marland, G., Boden, T. A., Kumar, N.: Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use, 1751–1950, Tellus, 51, 759–765, 1999.; Beusen, A. H. W., Bouwman, A. F., Heuberger, P. S. C., Van Drecht, G., and Van Der Hoek, K. W.: Bottom-up uncertainty estimates of global ammonia emissions from global agricultural prod...

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Aerosols Over Continental Portugal (1978–1993): Their Sources and ...

By: I. A. Mironova; A. L. Morozova

Description: Center for Geophysics of the University of Coimbra, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Understanding of aerosol sources which affect climate is an important problem open in front of scientists as well as policymakers. The role of aerosols in local climate variability depends on a~balance between aerosol absorbing and scattering particles as well as on variability of environmental conditions. In this paper we investigate variability of aerosol cont...

Barkan, J., Alpert, P., Kutiel, H., and Kishcha, P.: Synoptics of dust transportation days from Africa toward Italy and central Europe, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 110, D07208, doi:10.1029/2004JD005222, 2005.; Bourassa, A. E., Robock, A., Randel, W. J., Deshler, T., Rieger, L. A., Lloyd, N. D., Llewellyn, E. J., and Degenstein, D. A.: Large volcanic aerosol load in the stratosphere linked to Asian monsoon transport, Science, 337, 78–81, 2012.; Calvo, A. I., Pont, V., Castro...

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Precipitation Response to Regional Radiative Forcing : Volume 12, ...

By: G. Milly; A. Voulgarakis; G. Faluvegi; D. T. Shindell

Description: NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and Columbia Earth Institute, New York, USA. Precipitation shifts can have large impacts on human society and ecosystems. Many aspects of how inhomogeneous radiative forcings influence precipitation remain unclear, however. Here we investigate regional precipitation responses to various forcings imposed in different latitude bands in a climate model. We find that several regions show strong, significant responses ...

Bollasina, M. A., Ming, Y., and Ramaswamy, V.: Anthropogenic Aerosols and the Weakening of the South Asian Summer Monsoon, Science, 334, 502–505, 2011.; Ackerley, D., Booth, B. B. B., Knight, S. H. E., Highwood, E. J., Frame, D. J., Allen, M. R., and Rowell, D. P.: Sensitivity of 20th Century Sahel Rainfall to Sulfate Aerosol and CO2 Forcing, J. Climate, 24, 4999–5014, 2011.; Andrews, T., Forster, P. M., Boucher, O., Bellouin, N., and Jones, A.: Precipitation,...

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Sage II Measurements of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties at Non-vo...

By: S. P. Burton; B.-p. Luo; T. Peter; L. W. Thomason

Description: NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA. Since 2000, stratospheric aerosol levels have been relatively stable and at the lowest levels observed in the historical record. Given the challenges of making satellite measurements of aerosol properties at these levels, we have performed a study of the sensitivity of the product to the major components of the processing algorithm used in the production of SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements and the r...

Anderson, S. M. and Mauersberger, K.: Laser measurements of ozone absorption cross sections in the Chappuis band, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 933–936, 1992.; Anderson, S. M., Morton, J., and Mauersberger, K.: Near-infrared absorption spectra of 16O3 and 18O3: Adiabatic energy of the 1A2 state, J. Chem. Phys., 93, 3826–3832, 1990.; Anderson, S. M., Maeder, J., and Mauersberger, K.: Effect of isotopic substitution on the visible absorption spectrum of ozone, J. Chem. Phys., 9...

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The Impact of a Future H2-based Road Transportation Sector on the ...

By: D. J. Wuebbles; W. Jia; M. K. Dubey; S. C. Olsen; D. Wang; A. A. Rockett

Description: Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA. Vehicles burning fossil fuel emit a number of substances that change the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere, and contribute to global air and water pollution and climate change. For example, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted as byproducts of fossil fuel combustion are key precursors to ground-level ozone and aerosol ...

Abe, R.: Recent progress on photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting under visible light irradiation, J. Photoch. Photobio. C, 11, 179–209, 2010.; Appel, K. W., Gilliland, A. B., Sarwar, G., and Gilliam, R. C.: Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 4.5: sensitivities impacting model performance, part I – ozone, Atmos. Environ., 41, 9603–9615, 2007.; Appel, K. W., Bhave, P. V., Gilliland, A. B., Sarwar, G., and Roselle, S. ...

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Influence of Biomass Aerosol on Precipitation Over the Central Ama...

By: P.-e. Kirstetter; L. A. T. MacHado; W. A. Gonçalves

Description: National Institute for Space Research-INPE/Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies–CPTEC, Cachoeira Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil. Understanding the influence of biomass burning aerosol on clouds and precipitation in the Amazon is key to reducing uncertainties in simulations of climate change scenarios with regard to deforestation fires. Here, we associate rainfall characteristics obtained from an S-band radar in the Amazon with in situ measurem...

Ahmed, T., Dutkiewicz, V. A., Khan, A. J., and Husain, L.: Long term trends in Black Carbon Concentrations in the Northeastern United States, Atmos. Res., 137, 49–57, 2014.; Altaratz, O., Koren, I., Yair, Y., and Price, C.: Lightning response to smoke from Amazonian fires, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L07801, doi:10.1029/2010GL042679, 2010.; Altaratz, O., Koren, I., Remer, L. A., and Hirsch, E.: Review: Cloud invigoration by...

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Analysis of Transpacific Transport of Black Carbon During Hippo-3:...

By: D. K. Henze; S. Fan; D. L. Mauzerall; J. Liu; L. W. Horowitz; J.-t. Lin; Levy II H.; S. Tao; Z. Shen

Description: College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China. Long-range transport of black carbon (BC) is a growing concern as a result of the efficiency of BC in warming the climate and its adverse impact on human health. We study transpacific transport of BC during HIPPO-3 using a combination of inverse modeling and sensitivity analysis. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint to constrain Asian BC emissions an...

Park, R. J., Jacob, D. J., Palmer, P. I., Clarke, A. D., Weber, R. J., Zondlo, M. A., Eisele, F. L., Bandy, A. R., Thornton, D. C., Sachse, G. W., and Bond, T. C.: Export efficiency of black carbon aerosol in continental outflow: Global implications, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 110, D11205, doi:10.1029/2004jd005432, 2005.; Petters, M. D., Prenni, A. J., Kreidenweis, S. M., DeMott, P. J., Matsunaga, A., Lim, Y. B., and Ziema...

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Comparison of Total Ozone and Erythemal Uv Data from Omi with Grou...

By: I. Ialongo; A. M. Siani; G. R. Casale

Description: Physics Department, Sapienza, University of Rome, Italy. Ground-based total ozone and surface UV irradiance measurements have been collected since 1992 using Brewer spectrophotometer at Rome station. Erythemal Dose Rates (EDRs) have been also determined by a broad-band radiometer (model YES UVB-1) operational since 2000. The methodology to retrieve the EDR and the Erythemal Daily Dose (EDD) from the radiometer observations is described. Ground-based mea...

Arola, A., Kazadzis, S., Krotkov, N., Bais, A., Gröbner, J., and Herman, J. R.: Assessment of TOMS UV bias due to absorbing aerosols, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D23211, doi:10.1029/2005JD005913, 2005.; Bais, A., Kazantzidis, A., Kazadzis, S., and Zempila, M.: Validation of OMI products over Europe with ground-based UV instruments: Contribution from Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, in: OMI AO Progress Report No 4, 68–88, available at: http://www.knmi.nl/omi/research/vali...

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