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Comparison of Tropospheric Chemistry Schemes for Use Within Global...

By: M. J. Evans; K. M. Emmerson

Description: School of Earth & Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. Methane and ozone are two important climate gases with significant tropospheric chemistry. Within chemistry-climate and transport models this chemistry is simplified for computational expediency. We compare the state of the art Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) with six tropospheric chemistry schemes (CRI-reduced, GEOS-CHEM and a GEOS-CHEM adduct, MOZART, TOMCAT and CBM-IV) that could...

Aumont, B., Szopa, S., and Madronich, S.: Modelling the evolution of organic carbon during its gas-phase tropospheric oxidation: development of an explicit model based on a self generating approach, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2497–2517, 2005.; Bey, I., Jacob, D. J., Yantosca, R. M., et al.: Global modelling of tropospheric chemistry with assimilated meteorology: model description and evaluation, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 23 073–23 095, 2001.; Bloss, C., Wagner, V., Jenkin, M. E...

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Influence of Along-valley Terrain Heterogeneity on Exchange Proces...

By: A. Gohm; M. W. Rotach; J. S. Wagner

Description: Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Innsbruck, Austria. Idealized numerical simulations of thermally driven flows over various valley-plain topographies are performed under daytime conditions. Valley floor inclination and narrowing valley cross sections are systematically varied to study the influence of along-valley terrain heterogeneity on the developing boundary layer structure, as well as horizontal and vertical transport p...

Catalano, F. and Cenedese, A.: High-resolution numerical modeling of thermally driven slope winds in a valley with strong capping, J. Appl. Meteorol., 49, 1859–1880, 2010.; Catalano, F. and Moeng, C.-H.: Large-eddy simulation of the daytime boundary layer in an idealized valley using the weather research and forecasting numerical model, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 137, 49–75, doi:10.1007/s10546-010-9518-8, 2010.; Deardor...

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Internally Mixed Soot, Sulfates, and Organic Matter in Aerosol Par...

By: P. R. Buseck; K. Adachi

Description: School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA. Soot particles are major aerosol constituents that result from emissions of burning of fossil fuel and biomass. Because they both absorb sunlight and contribute to cloud formation, they are an influence on climate on local, regional, and global scales. It is therefore important to evaluate their optical and hygroscopic properties and those effects on the radiation budget. T...

Abel, S. J., Haywood, J. M., Highwood, E. J., Li, J., and Buseck, P. R.: Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1783, doi:10.1029/2003GL017342, 2003.; Andreae, M. O.: Soot carbon and excess fine potassium: long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols, Science, 220, 1148–1151, 1983.; Adachi, K., Chung, S. H., Friedrich, H., and Buseck, P. R.: Fractal parameters of individual soot partic...

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Reply to: “tropical Cirrus and Water Vapor: an Effective Earth Inf...

By: M.-d. Chou; A. Y. Hou; R. S. Lindzen

Description: Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA. In assessing the iris effect suggested by Lindzen et al. (2001), Fu et al. (2001, 2002) found that the response of high-level clouds to the sea surface temperature had an effect of reducing the climate sensitivity to external radiative forcing, but the effect was not as strong as Lindzen et al. (2001) found. The approach of Fu et al. (2001, 2002) to specifying...

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Odin-osiris Stratospheric Aerosol Data Product and Sage III Interc...

By: N. D. Lloyd; D. A. Degenstein; L. A. Rieger; A. E. Bourassa

Description: Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Canada. The scattered sunlight measurements made by the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS) on the Odin spacecraft are used to retrieve vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosol extinction at 750 nm. The recently released OSIRIS Version 5 data product contains the first publicly released stratospheric aerosol extinction retrievals, and these are now available ...

Bertaux, J. L., Kyr�l�, E., Fussen, D., Hauchecorne, A., Dalaudier, F., Sofieva, V., Tamminen, J., Vanhellemont, F., Fanton d'Andon, O., Barrot, G., Mangin, A., Blanot, L., Lebrun, J. C., P�rot, K., Fehr, T., Saavedra, L., Leppelmeier, G. W., and Fraisse, R.: Global ozone monitoring by occultation of stars: an overview of GOMOS measurements on ENVISAT, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 12091–12148, doi:10.5194/acp-10-12091-2010

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Impact of Black Carbon Aerosol Over Italian Basin Valleys: High Re...

By: B. S. Ferrini; M. Castelli; G. Sangiorgi; B. Moroni; G. Rovelli; M. G. Perrone; E. Bolzacchini; D. Cappelletti; M. Moscatelli; F. Scardazza; L. D'Angelo; L. Ferrero; M. Petitta; G. Mocnik

Description: POLARIS Research Centre, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milan, Italy. This study presents the first measured high resolution vertical profiles of black carbon and calculation of aerosol radiative forcing and atmospheric heating rates in the lower troposphere, over Italy and Europe. The calculation is based on vertical profiles of black carbon, aerosol number size distribution ...

Ackerman, T. P. and Toon, O. B.: Absorption of visible radiation in atmosphere containing mixtures of absorbing and nonabsorbing particles: erratum, Appl. Optics, 21, 758–758, doi:10.1364/AO.21.000758, 1982.; Arnott, W. P., Hamasha, K., Moosmüller, H., Sheridan, P. J., and Ogren, J. A.: Towards aerosol light-absorption measurements with a 7-wavelength aethalometer: evaluation with a photoacoustic instrument and 3-wavelen...

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A Comparison Study of Regional Atmospheric Simulations with an Ela...

By: E. Landulfo; K. M. Longo; P. Sawamura; S. T. Uehara; S. R. Freitas

Description: Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares – IPEN, São Paulo, Brazil. We describe a comparison study of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from numerical simulations using a regional atmospheric model with an elastic backscattering lidar operating at 532 nm and a sunphotometer belonging to the AERONET network at São Paulo (23° S 46° W) city, Brazil, a very populated urban area. The atmospheric model includes an aerosol emission, transport and deposition ...

Ackermann, J.: The Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratio of Tropospheric Aerosol: A Numerical Study, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 15, 1043–1050, 1998.; Anderson, T L., Masonis, S J., Covert, D V., Charlson, R J., and Rood, M J.: In situ measurement of the aerosol extinciton-to-backscatter ratio at a polluted continental site., J. Geophys. Res., 105, 26907–26915, 2000.; Cattrall, C., Reagan, J., Thome, K., and Dubovik, O.: Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter an...

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Carbon Balance of China Constrained by Contrail Aircraft Co2 Measu...

By: W. M. Ju; T. MacHida; L. X. Zhou; H. Matsueda; F. Jiang; H. M. Wang; J. M. Chen; Y. Sawa

Description: Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science and Technology, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China. Terrestrial CO2 flux estimates in China using atmospheric inversion method are beset with considerable uncertainties because very few atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements are available. In order to improve these estimates, nested atmospheric CO2 inversion during 2002–2008 is performed in this stu...

Baker, D. F., Law, R. M., Gurney, K. R., Rayner, P., Peylin, P., Denning, A. S., Bousquet, P., Bruhwiler, L., Chen, Y. H., Ciais, P., Fung, I. Y., Heimann, M., John, J., Maki, T., Maksyutov, S., Masarie, K., Prather, M., Pak, B., Taguchi, S., and Zhu, Z.: TransCom 3 inversion intercomparison: impact of transport model errors on the interannual variability of regional CO2 fluxes, 1988–2003, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 20, GB1002,

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Coastal Measurements of Short-lived Reactive Iodocarbons and Bromo...

By: L. J. Carpenter; R. J. Leigh; C. E. Jones; R. M. Dunk; K. E. Hornsby

Description: Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, UK. Atmospheric concentrations of the volatile reactive iodocarbons C2H5I, 1-C3H7I, 2-C3H7I, CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2 and bromocarbons CH2Br2 and CHBr3 were determined by GC/MS analysis of marine boundary layer air at Roscoff, Brittany on the no...

Barnes, B.: Coast and shore, a nature guide. The Crowood Press, Marlborough, UK, 1986.; Bilde, M., Wallington, T. J., Ferronato, C., Orlando, J. J., Tyndall, G. S., Estupinan, E., and Haberkorn, S.: Atmospheric chemistry of CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl, CF3CHBrCl, and CBr2Cl2, J. Phys. Chem. A, 102, 1976–1986, 1998.; Bloss, W. J., Lee, J. D., Johnson, G. P., Sommariva, R., Heard, D. E., Saiz-Lopez, A., Plane, J. M. C., McFiggans, ...

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Trajectory Mapping of Middle Atmospheric Water Vapor by a Mini Ne...

By: N. Kämpfer; G. E. Nedoluha; B. Tschanz; S. Ka; M. Lainer; J. J. Oh

Description: Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. The important task to observe the global coverage of middle atmospheric trace gases like water vapor or ozone usually is accomplished by satellites. Climate and atmospheric studies rely upon the knowledge of trace gas distributions throughout the stratosphere and mesosphere. Many of these gases are currently measured from satellites, but it is not clear whether this capability w...

Allen, M., Yung, Y. L., and Waters, J. W.: Vertical transport and photochemistry in the terrestrial mesosphere and lower thermosphere (50–120\;km), J. Geophys. Res.-Space, 86, 3617–3627, doi:10.1029/JA086iA05p03617, 1981.; Bacmeister, J. T., Kuell, V., Offermann, D., Riese, M., and Elkins, J. W.: Intercomparison of satellite and aircraft observations of ozone, CFC-11 and NOy using trajectory ma...

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Seasonal Changes in the Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Profile Over ...

By: R. L. Langenfelds; S. R. Wilson; G. Zeng; L. K. Emmons; J. A. Fisher; J. E. Williams; P. B. Krummel; L. P. Steele

Description: University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. We use aircraft observations from the 1991–2000 Cape Grim Overflight Program and the 2009–2011 HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO), together with output from four chemical transport and chemistry-climate models, to better understand the vertical distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) in the remote Southern Hemisphere. Observed CO vertical gradients at Cape Grim vary from 1.6 ppb...

Archibald, A., Jenkin, M., and Shallcross, D.: An isoprene mechanism intercomparison, Atmos. Environ., 44, 5356–5364, 2010.; Arneth, A., Miller, P. A., Scholze, M., Hickler, T., Schurgers, G., Smith, B., and Prentice, I. C.: CO2 inhibition of global terrestrial isoprene emissions: potential implications for atmospheric chemistry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L18813, doi:10.1029/2007GL030615, 2007a.; Arneth, A., Ni...

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Data Assimilation of Stratospheric Constituents: a Review : Volume...

By: D. Fonteyn; R. Swinbank; Q. Errera; W. A. Lahoz

Description: Data Assimilation Research Centre, University of Reading, UK. The data assimilation of stratospheric constituents is reviewed. Several data assimilation methods are introduced, with particular consideration to their application to stratospheric constituent measurements. Differences from meteorological data assimilation are outlined. Historically, two approaches have been used to carry out constituent assimilation. One approach has carried constituent as...

Peuch, A., Thépaut, J.-N., and Pailleux, J.: Dynamical impact of total-ozone observations in a four-dimensional variational assimilation, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126, 1641–1659, 2000.; Pham, D. T.: Stochastic methods for sequential data assimilation in strongly nonlinear systems, Mon. Weather Rev., 129, 1194–1207, 2001.; Plumb, R. A. and Ko, M. K. W.: Interrelationships between mixing ratios of long-lived stratospheric constituents, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 10 145–10 156, ...

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Simulating Black Carbon and Dust and Their Radiative Forcing in Se...

By: Z. Hu; M. Huang; Y. Qian; L. R. Leung; H. Wang; Z. Lu; R. Zhang; C. Zhao; D. G. Streets; J. Huang; J. Jin; H. Yan; M. Flanner

Description: Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA. A state-of-the-art regional model, WRF-Chem, is coupled with the SNICAR model that includes the sophisticated representation of snow metamorphism processes available for climate study. The coupled model is used to simulate the black carbon (BC) and dust concentrations and their radiative forcing in seasonal snow over North China in January–Feb...

Doherty, S. J., Warren, S. G., Grenfell, T. C., Clarke, A. D., and Brandt, R. E.: Light-absorbing impurities in Arctic snow, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11647–11680, doi:10.5194/acp-10-11647-2010, 2010.; Doherty, S. J., Grenfell, T. C., Forsstrom, S., Hegg, D. L., Brandt, R. E., and Warren, S. G.: Observed vertical redistribution of black carbon and other insoluble light-absorbing particles in melting snow, J. Geophys. ...

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Sources and Light Absorption of Water-soluble Brown Carbon Aerosol...

By: J. Han; M. Lee; A. Andersson; E. N. Kirillova; Ö. Gustafsson

Description: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM) and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. High loadings of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosols in Chinese air influence the air quality for over 1 billion people and impact the regional climate. A large fraction (17–80%) of this aerosol carbon is water soluble, promoting cloud formation and thus climate cooling. Recent findings, however, suggest that wa...

Aggarwal, S. G. and Kawamura, K.: Molecular distributions and stable carbon isotopic compositions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in aerosols from Sapporo, Japan: implications for photochemical aging during long-range atmospheric transport, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D14301, doi:10.1029/2007JD009365, 2008.; Agnihotri, R., Mandal, T. K., Karapurkar, S. G., Naja, M., Gadi, R., Ahammmed, Y. N., Kumar, A., Saud, T., ...

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Exposure-plant Response of Ambient Ozone Over the Tropical Indian ...

By: Sachin D. Ghude; S. Deb Roy; G. Beig

Description: Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, 411008 Pune, India. A high resolution regional chemistry-transport model has been used to study the distribution of exposure-plant response index (AOT40, Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb, expressed as ppb h) over the Indian geographical region for the year 2003 as case study. The directives on ozone pollution in ambient air provided by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and Worl...

Ali, K., Momin, G. A., Safai, P. D., Chate, D. M., and Rao, P. S. P.: Surface ozone measurements over Himalayan region and Delhi, north India, Ind. J. Radio Space Phys., 33, 391–398, 2004.; Agrawal, M.: Air pollution impact on vegetation in India, in: Air pollution impacts on crops and forests: a global assessment, edited by: Emberson, L. D., Ashmore, M. R., Murray, F., Imperial College Press, London, UK, 165–187, 2003.; Avol, E. L., Navidi, W. C., Rappaport, E. B., and ...

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No2 Climatology in the Northern Subtropical Region: Diurnal, Seaso...

By: M. P. Chipperfield; M. Navarro; L. N. Gunn; O. Puentedura; M. Yela; A. Richter; E. Cuevas; M. Gil; I. Alonso; S. Rodríguez; J. Iglesias

Description: Area de Investigación e Instrumentación Atmosférica, INTA, Torrejón de Ardoz, Spain. Daily NO2 vertical column density (VCD) has been routinely measured by zenith sky spectroscopy at the subtropical station of Izaña (28° N, 16° W) since 1993 in the framework of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). Based on 14 years of data the first low latitude NO2 VCD climatology has been established and the mai...

Bernhard, G., Evans, R. D., Labow, G. J., and Oltmans, S. J.: Bias in Dobson total ozone measurements at high latitudes due to approximations in calculations of ozone absorption coefficients and air mass, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10305, doi:10.1029/2004JD005559, 2005.; Bovensmann, H., Burrows, J. P., Buchwitz, M., Frerick, J., No\el, S., Rozanov, V. V., Chance, K. V., and Goede, A. H. P.: SCIAMACHY – Mission objectives and measurement modes, J. Atmos. Sci., 56(2), 127–150...

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Aerosol Optical Properties in a Rural Environment Near the Mega-ci...

By: L. M. Zeng; P. Achtert; M. O. Andreae; D. Rose; A. Wiedensohler; A. Nowak; H. Yang; Y. Kondo; N. Takegawa; M. Shao; O. Schmid; R. M. Garland; K. Kita; M. Hu; Y. H. Zhang; U. Pöschl; Y. Miyazaki

Description: Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Biogeochemistry Department, Mainz, Germany. The scattering and absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key element of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however, highly variable and not well characterized, especially near newly emerging mega-cities. In this study, aerosol optical properties were measured at a rural site approximately 60...

Adam, M., Pahlow, M., Kovalev, V. A., Ondov, J. M., Parlange, M. B., and Nair, N.: Aerosol optical characterization by nephelometer and lidar: the Baltimore Supersite experiment during the Canadian forest fire smoke intrusion, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D16S02, doi:10.1029/2003JD004047 ,2004.; Anderson, T. L., Covert, D. S., Marshall, S. F., Laucks, M. L., Charlson, R. J., Waggoner, A. P., Ogren, J. A., Caldow, R., Holm, R. L., Quant, F. R., Sem, G. J., Wiedensohler, ...

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Aircraft Observations and Model Simulations of Concentration and ...

By: A. L. M. Grant; B. T. Johnson; H. F. Dacre

Description: Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland emitted a cloud of ash into the atmosphere during April and May 2010. Over the UK the ash cloud was observed by the FAAM BAe-146 Atmospheric Research Aircraft which was equipped with in-situ probes measuring the concentration of volcanic ash carried by particles of varying sizes. The UK Met Office Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) ha...

Ansmann, A., Tesche, M., Seifert, P., Groß, S., Freudenthaler, V., Apituley, A., Wilson, K. M., Serikov, I., Linné, H., Heinold, B., Hiebsch, A., Schnell, F., Schmidt, J., Mattis, I., Wandinger, U., and Wiegner, M.: Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D00U02, doi:10.1029/2010JD015567...

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Caribic Aircraft Measurements of Eyjafjallajökull Volcanic Plumes ...

By: M. Hermann; B. G. Martinsson; A. Weigelt; K.-p. Heue; A. Stohl; P. F. J. Van Velthoven; C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer; A. Rauthe-schöch; D. Scharffe; A. K. Baker; S. Eckhardt; A. Zahn

Description: Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Atmospheric Chemistry, Mainz, Germany. The Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) project investigates physical and chemical processes in the Earth's atmosphere using a Lufthansa Airbus long-distance passenger aircraft. After the beginning of the explosive eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano on Iceland on 14 April 2010, the first CARIBIC volcano-s...

Airbus Customer Services: {G}etting to grips with aircraft performance, Tech. rep., Airbus S.A.S., Blagnac, France, 2002.; Ansmann, A., Tesche, M., Gro{ß}, S., Freudenthaler, V., Seifert, P., Hiebsch, A., Schmidt, J., Wandinger, U., Mattis, I., M{ü}ller, D., and Wiegner, M.: T}he 16 {A}pril 2010 major volcanic ash plume over central {E}urope: {EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations at {L}eipzig and {M}unich, Germany, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L13810,

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Corrigendum to Introduction: European Integrated Project on Aeroso...

By: U. Pöschl; M. C. Facchini; M. Kulmala; H. K. Lappalainen; U. Baltensperger; C. D. O'Dowd; A. Asmi; K. S. Carslaw; S. N. Pandis; Ø. Hov; A. Wiedensohler; H.-c. Hansson; J.-l. Brenguier

Description: University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. No abstract available.

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