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New Cloud Chamber Experiments on the Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation ...

By: H. Saathoff; O. Möhler; M. Schnaiter; T. Leisner; R. Wagner

Description: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe, Germany. The heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid in the immersion mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling runs with airborne, ternary solution droplets composed of, (i), sodium chloride, oxalic acid, and water (NaCl/OA/H2O) and, (ii), sulphuric acid, oxalic acid, and water (H2SO4/OA/H2

Braban, C. F., Carroll, M. F., Styler, S. A., and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Phase transitions of malonic and oxalic acid aerosols, J. Phys. Chem. A, 107, 6594–6602, 2003.; Arnott, W. P., Dong, Y. Y., and Hallett, J.: Extinction Efficiency in the Infrared (2–18 μm) of Laboratory Ice Clouds – Observations of Scattering Minima in the Christiansen Bands of Ice, Appl. Optics, 34, 541–551, 1995.; Bellamy, L. J. and Pace, R. J.: Hydrogen Bonding in Carboxylic Acids.1. Oxalic Acids, Spe...

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Technical Note: Validation of Odin/Smr Limb Observations of Ozone,...

By: K. Strong; J. De La Noë; J. B. Renard; J. Urban; P. Ricaud; C. Randall; C. Haley; N. D. Lloyd; D. P. Murtagh; V. Catoire; J. P. Pommereau; R. M. Bevilacqua; S. Petelina; F. Jégou; G. Berthet; P. Eriksson; N. Huret; E. Le Flochmoën; J. Lumpe; J. Davies; E. J. Llewellyn; A. Jones; F. Goutail; C. T. MC Elroy

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Gif sur Yvette, France. The Odin satellite carries two instruments capable of determining stratospheric ozone profiles by limb sounding: the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) and the UV-visible spectrograph of the OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System) instrument. A large number of ozone profiles measurements were performed during six years from November 2001 to present. This ozon...

Barret, B., Ricaud, P., Santee, M.L., Attié, J.L., Urban, J., Le Flochmoën, E., Berthet, G., Murtagh, D.,Eriksson, P., Jones, A., de La Noë, J., Dupuy, E., Froidevaux, L., Livesey, N.J., Waters, J. W., and Filipiak, M. J.: Intercomparisons of trace gases profiles from the Odin/SMR and Aura/MLS limb sounders, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D21302, doi:10.1029/2006JD007305, 2006.; Baron, P., Ricaud, P, de La Noë, J., Eriksson, J. E., Merino, F., Ridal, M., and Murtagh, D. P.: Stud...

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Measurements of the Relation Between Aerosol Properties and Microp...

By: V.-m. Kerminen; A.-p. Hyvärinen; S. Saarikoski; Y. Viisanen; R. Hillamo; U. Makkonen; J. Laakia; M. Kulmala; H. Lihavainen; M. Komppula; N. Kivekäs

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Research and Development, P. O. Box 503, 00 101 Helsinki, Finland. Physical and chemical properties of boundary layer clouds, together with relevant aerosol properties, were investigated during the first Pallas Cloud Experiment (First PaCE) conducted in northern Finland between 20 October and 9 November, 2004. Two stations located 6 km apart from each other at different altitudes were employed in measurements. The low-al...

Aalto, P., Hämeri, K., Becker, E., Weber, J., Salm, J., Mäkelä, J. M., Hoell, C., O'Dowd, C. D., Karlsson, H., Hansson, H.-C., Väkevä, M., Koponen, I. K., Buzorius, G., and Kulmala, M.: Physical characterization of aerosol particles during nucleation events, Tellus, 53B, 344–358, 2001.; Abdul-Razzak, H. and Ghan, S. J.: A parameterization of aerosol activation 2. Multiple aerosol types, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 6837–6844. 2000.; Baker, M. B. and Peter, T.: Small-scale clou...

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Comment on Quantitative Performance Metrics for Stratospheric-reso...

By: R. Sausen; V. Grewe

Description: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, 82230 Wessling, Germany. This comment focuses on the statistical limitations of a model grading, as applied by D. Waugh and V. Eyring (2008) (WE08). The grade g is calculated for a specific diagnostic, which basically relates the difference of means of model and observational data to the standard deviation in the observational dataset. We performed Mo...

Douglass, A. R., Prather, M. J., Hall, T. M., Strahan, S. E., Rasch, P. J., Sparling, L. C., Coy, L., and Rodriguez, J. M.: Choosing meteorological input for the global modeling initiative assessment of high-speed aircraft, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 27545–27564, 1999.; Kawa, S. R., Anderson, J. G., Baughcum, S. L., Brock, C. A., Brune, W. H., Cohen, R. C., Kinnison, D. E., Newman, P. A., Rodriguez, J. M., Stolarski, R. S., Waugh, D., and Wofsy, S. C.: Assessment of the Effe...

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Seasonal Variability of Monoterpene Emission Factors for a Pondero...

By: A. Lee; M. McKay; A. H. Goldstein; R. Holzinger

Description: University of California at Berkeley, Dept. Environm. Sci. Policy & Management, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Monoterpene fluxes have been measured over an 11-month period from June 2003 to April 2004. During all seasons ambient air temperature was the environmental factor most closely related to the measured emission rates. The monoterpene flux was modeled with the exponential relation suggested by Tingey et al. (1980) and Guenther et al. (1993); a basal em...

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Characterization and Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Organic a...

By: Z. S. an; Y. Li; S. C. Lee; J. J. Cao; K. Fung; C. S. Zhu; S. W. Chen; J. G. Watson; J. C. Chow; S. X. Liu

Description: 1State Key Laboratory of Loess & Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075, China. Continuous observation of atmospheric organic and elemental carbon (OC, EC) were conducted at Xi'an during high pollution seasons from September 2003 to February 2004. PM2.5 samples were collected on pre-fired quartz-fiber filters with battery-powered mini-volume samplers every day and PM10 samples w...

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Cloud System Resolving Model Study of the Roles of Deep Convection...

By: V. T. J. Phillips; L. J. Donner; M. Salzmann; M. G. Lawrence

Description: Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Department of Atmospheric Chemistry, PO Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany. A cloud system resolving model including photo-chemistry (CSRMC) has been developed based on a prototype version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and is used to study influences of deep convection on chemistry in the TOGA COARE/CEPEX region. Lateral boundary conditions for trace gases are prescribed from global chemistry-transport si...

Baker, M B., Christian, H J., and Latham, J.: A computational study of the relationships linking lightning frequency and other parameters, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 121, 1525–1548, 1995.; Christian, H J., Blakeslee, R J., Boccippio, D J., Boeck, W L., Buechler, D E., Driscoll, K T., Goodman, S J., Hall, J M., Koshak, W J., Mach, D M., and Stewart, M F.: Global frequency and distribution of lightning as observed from space by the Optical Transient Detector, J. Geophys. Res...

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Aerosol Characterization at the Saharan Aeronet Site Tamanrasset :...

By: E. Cuevas; J. J. Bustos; V. E. Cachorro; A. M. De Frutos; C. Toledano; S. Basart; P. Goloub; L. Zeudmi; M. Mimouni; S. Alonso-pérez; P. M. Romero; C. Camino; J. M. Baldasano; C. Guirado

Description: Atmospheric Optics Group, University of Valladolid (GOA-UVA), Valladolid, Spain. More than 2 years of columnar atmospheric aerosol measurements (2006–2009) at the Tamanrasset site (22.79° N, 5.53° E, 1377 m a.s.l.), in the heart of the Sahara, are analysed. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) level 2.0 data were used. The KCICLO (K is the name of a constant and ciclo means cycle in Spanish) method was applied to a part of the level 1.5 data series ...

Alonso-Pérez, S., Cuevas, E., Querol, X., Viana, M., and Guerra, J. C.: Impact of the Saharan dust outbreaks on the ambient levels of total suspended particles (TSP) in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) of the Subtropical Eastern North Atlantic Ocean, Atmos. Environ., 41, 9468–9480, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.08.049, 2007.; Alonso-Pérez, S., Cuevas, E., Querol, X., Guerra, J. C., and Pérez, C.: African dust sour...

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Direct Measurements of Near-highway Emissions in a High Diesel Env...

By: S. Ravier; V. Jacob; B. Temime-roussel; N. Marchand; S. Hellebust; J. L. Besombes; J. L. Jaffrezo; H. Wortham; C. Buisson; A. Pasquier; L. Polo; M. André; H. L. Dewitt; A. Charron

Description: Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LCE FRE 3416, 13331 Marseille, France. Diesel-powered passenger cars currently outnumber gasoline-powered cars in many countries, particularly in Europe. In France, diesel cars represented 61% of Light Duty Vehicles in 2011 and this percentage is still increasing (French Environment and Energy Management Agency, ADEME). As part of the September~2011 joint PM-DRIVE (Particulate Matter- DiRect and Indirect on-road Vehi...

Aiken, A. C., Salcedo, D., Cubison, M. J., Huffman, J. A., DeCarlo, P. F., Ulbrich, I. M., Docherty, K. S., Sueper, D., Kimmel, J. R., Worsnop, D. R., Trimborn, A., Northway, M., Stone, E. A., Schauer, J. J., Volkamer, R. M., Fortner, E., de Foy, B., Wang, J., Laskin, A., Shutthanandan, V., Zheng, J., Zhang, R., Gaffney, J., Marley, N. A., Paredes-Miranda, G., Arnott, W. P., Molina, L. T., Sosa, G., and Jimenez, J. L.: Mexico City aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using hi...

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Near-surface Meteorology During the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Stud...

By: M. Kelley; G. De Boer; M. Tjernström; P. O. G. Persson; S. A. Klein; M. D. Shupe; J. S. Boyle; P. M. Caldwell; S. E. Bauer

Description: The University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO, USA. Atmospheric measurements from the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) are used to evaluate the performance of three reanalyses (ERA-Interim, NCEP/NCAR and NCEP/DOE) and two global climate models (CAM5 and NASA GISS ModelE2) in simulation of the high Arctic environment. Quantities analyzed include near surface meteorological variables such...

McComiskey, A. and Feingold, G.: The scale problem in quantifying aerosol indirect effects, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1031–1049, doi:10.5194/acp-12-1031-2012, 2012.; Mesinger, F., DiMego, F., Kalnay, E., Mitchell, K., Shafran, P., Ebisuzaki, W., Jović, D., Woollen, J., Rogers, E., Berbery, E., Ek, M., Fan, Y., Grumbine, R., Higgins, W., Li, H., Lin, Y., Manikin, G., Parrish, D., and Shi, W.: North American regional rea...

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The Effect of Trimethylamine on Atmospheric Nucleation Involving H...

By: S.-h. Lee; A. A. Viggiano; M. E. Erupe

Description: Kent State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kent, Ohio 44240, USA. Field observations and quantum chemical calculations have shown that organic amine compounds may be important in new particle formation processes involving H2SO4. Here, we report laboratory observations that investigate the effect of trimethylamine (TMA) on H2SO4-H2O nucleation made under aerosol precursor concent...

Antilla, T., Vehkamaki, H., Napari, I., and Kulmala, M.: Effect of ammonium bisulfate formation on atmospheric water-sulfuric acid–ammonia nucleation, Boreal Environ. Res., 10, 511–-523, 2005.; Atkinson, R.: Kinetics and mechanisms of the gas–phase reactions of the hydroxyl radical with organic compounds under atmospheric conditions, Chem. Data Monograph No. 1, 1–246, 1989.; Ball, S. M., Hanson, D. R., Eisele, F. L., and McMurry, P. H.: Laboratory studies of particle nuc...

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Estimate of Surface Direct Radiative Forcing of Desert Dust from A...

By: D. Fuà; D. Meloni; A. Di Sarra

Description: Laboratory for Earth Observations and Analyses, National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome, Italy. Measurements carried out on the island of Lampedusa, in the central Mediterranean, on 7 September 2005, show the occurrence of a quasi periodic oscillation of aerosol optical depth, column water vapour, and surface irradiance in different spectral bands. The oscillation has a pe...

Higbie, J.: Uncertainty in the linear regression slope, Am. J. Phys., 59, 184–185, 1991.; Berk, A., Anderson, G. P., Acharya, P. K., Hoke, M. L., Chetwynd, J. H., Bernstein, L. S., Shettle, E. P., Matthew, M. W., and Adler-Golden, S. M.: MODTRAN4 Version 3 Revision 1 User's Manual, Technical Report, Air Force Resour. Lab., Hanscom Air Force Base, Lincoln, Mass., 2003.; Bush, B. C. and Valero, F. P. J.: Spectral aerosol radiative forcing at the surface during the Indian O...

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Singular Vector Decomposition for Sensitivity Analyses of Troposph...

By: H. Elbern; N. Goris

Description: Institute of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-8, Research Centre Jülich, Jülich, Germany. Observations of the chemical state of the atmosphere typically provide only sparse snapshots of the state of the system due to their insufficient temporal and spatial density. Therefore the measurement configurations need to be optimised to get a best possible state estimate. One possibility to optimise the state estimate is provided by observation targeting of sens...

Barkmeijer, J., Gijzen, M. V., and Bouttier, F.: Singular vectors and estimates of the analysis-error covariance metric, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 124, 1695–1713, 1998.; Berliner, L. M., Lu, Z., and Snyder, C.: Statistical design for Adaptive Weather Observations, J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 2536–2552, 1998.; Bishop, C. H. and Toth, Z.: Ensemble Transformation and Adaptive Observations, J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 1748–1765, 1998.; Buizza, R. and Montani, A.: Targeting Observations Usi...

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Attenuation of Concentration Fluctuations of Water Vapor and Other...

By: A. Ibrom; W. J. Massman

Description: US Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 240 West Prospect, Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA. Recent studies with closed-path eddy covariance (EC) systems have indicated that the attenuation of fluctuations of water vapor concentration is dependent upon ambient relative humidity, presumably due to sorption/desorption of water molecules at the interior surface of the tube. Previous studies of EC-related tube attenuation effects have either not cons...

Brutsaert, W.: Evaporation into the Atmosphere, D Reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht, 299 pp., 1982.; Lenschow, D. H. and Raupach, M. R.: The attenuation of fluctuations in scalar concentrations through sampling tubes, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 15 259–15 268, 1991.; Ammann, C., Brunner, A., Spirig, C., and Neftel, A.: Technical Note: Water vapour concentration and flux measurements with PTR-MS, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4643–4651, 2006.; Andrews, E. and Larson, S. M.: Effect of s...

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Corrigendum to Airborne Hydrogen Cyanide Measurements Using a Chem...

By: J. B. A. Muller; M. N. R. Ashfold; S. J. O'Shea; M. Parrington; S. J.-b. Bauguitte; G. Forster; J. D. Lee; D. E. Shallcross; D. E. Oram; A. Bacak; M. Le Breton; P. I. Palmer; C. J. Percival; A. C. Lewis; M. C. Cooke; P. Xiao; R. Batt

Description: The Centre for Atmospheric Science, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Simon Building, Brunswick Street, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK. No abstract available.

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Airborne Measurements of Nucleation Mode Particles II: Boreal Fore...

By: H. Lihavainen; Y. J. Yoon; W. Junkerman; Y. Viisanen; M. Kulmala; P. Aalto; C. D. O'Dowd

Description: Department of Physics and Centre for Climate and Air Pollution Studies, Environmental Change Institute, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway, Ireland. Airborne measurements of nucleation mode aerosol concentrations during nucleation events over the boreal forest of southern Finland are reported. Three case studies are analysis in an attempt to characterise the spatial scales over which these events occur and to identify the source regi...

Charlson, R. J., Lovelock, J. E., Andreae, M. O., and Warren, S. G.: Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulfur, cloud albedo and climate, Nature, 326, 655–661, 1987.; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): Climate Change 2007, The physical scientific basis, (Edited by Solomon et al.), Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 2007.; Hansson, H. C. and O'Dowd, C. D.: Common Issues: Air Quality and Climate – Research and Policy, edited by: Hansson, H.-C. and O'Dowd., C. ...

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Ace-fts Observation of a Young Biomass Burning Plume: First Report...

By: M. Carleer; P.-f. Coheur; D. Hauglustaine; D. Hurtmans; H. Herbin; S. Turquety; C. D. Boone; J. Remedios; C. P. Rinsland; C. Clerbaux; C. Wespes; P. F. Bernath

Description: Spectroscopie de l'atmosphère, Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.), Brussels, Belgium. In the course of our study of the upper tropospheric composition with the infrared Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment – Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE–FTS), we found an occultation sequence that on 8 October 2005, sampled a remarkable plume near the east coast of Tanzania. Model simulations of the CO distribution in the Southern hemi...

Allen, G., Remedios, J. J., Newnham, D. A., Smith, K. M., and Monks, P. S.: Improved mid-infrared cross-sections for peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) vapour, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 47–56, 2005a.; Allen, G., Remedios, J. J., and Smith, K. M.: Low temperature mid-infrared cross-sections for peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) vapour, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 3153–3158, 2005b.; Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, G. Biogeochem. Cycles, 1...

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Strong Spectral Dependence of Light Absorption by Organic Carbon P...

By: M. Gimmler; C. Jäger; H. Mutschke; I. Llamas; C. Linke; M. Schnaiter

Description: Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. We have measured the extinction and absorption cross sections of carbon particles emitted by a propane diffusion flame both in an aerosol chamber and on size-segregated samples deposited on optical windows. The absorption cross section, the single scattering albedo, and the Ångström exponent show drastic dependencies both on the C/O ratio and on the particle size. This i...

Apicella, B., Alfe, M., Barbella, R., Tregrossi, A., and Ciajolo, A.: Aromatic structures of carbonaceous materials and soot inferred by spectroscopic analysis, Carbon, 42, 1583–1589, 2004.; Bond, T C.: Spectral dependence of visible light absorption by carbonaceous particles emitted from coal combustion, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 4075–4078, 2001.; Bond, T C. and Bergstrom, R.: Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: an investigative review, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 39,...

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Efficiency of Cloud Condensation Nuclei Formation from Ultrafine P...

By: P. J. Adams; J. R. Pierce

Description: Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Atmospheric cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations are a key uncertainty in the assessment of the effect of anthropogenic aerosol on clouds and climate. The ability of new ultrafine particles to grow to become CCN varies throughout the atmosphere and must be understood in order to understand CCN formation. We have developed the Probability of Ultrafine particle ...

Adams, P. J. and Seinfeld, J. H.: Disproportionate impact of particulate emissions on global cloud condensation nuclei concentrations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1239, doi:10.1029/2002GL016303, 2003.; Adams, P. J. and Seinfeld, J. H.: Predicting global aerosol size distributions in general circulation models, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4370, doi:10.1029/2001JD001010, 2002.; Albrecht, B. A.: Aerosols, Cloud Microphysics, and Fractional Cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227–1230, 1989....

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Black Carbon Emissions from Russian Diesel Sources: Case Study of ...

By: V. Malyshev; S. Tretyakova; N. Kholod; S. Yu; M. Evans; A. Barinov; E. Gusev

Description: Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 5825 University Research Court, Suite 3500, College Park, MD 20740, USA. Black carbon (BC) is a potent pollutant because of its effects on climate change, ecosystems and human health. Black carbon has a particularly pronounced impact as a climate forcer in the Arctic because of its effect on snow albedo and cloud formation. We have estimated BC emissions from diesel sources in...

Bond, T. C., Streets, D. G., Yarber, K. F., Nelson, S. M., Woo, J.-H., and Klimont, Z.: A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D14203, doi:10.1029/2003jd003697, 2004.; Bond, T. C., Doherty, S. J., Fahey, D. W., Forster, P. M., Berntsen, T., DeAngelo, B. J., Flanner, M. G., Ghan, S., Kärcher, B., Koch, D., Kinne, S., Kondo, Y., Quinn, P. K.,...

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