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Radiative Consequences of Low-temperature Infrared Refractive Indi...

By: V. P. Walden; S. Neshyba; P. M. Rowe

Description: Department of Geography, University of Idaho, 875 Perimeter Drive, Moscow, ID, 83844, USA. Simulations of cloud radiative properties for climate modeling and remote sensing rely on accurate knowledge of the complex refractive index (CRI) of water. Although conventional algorithms employ a temperature independent assumption (TIA), recent infrared measurements of supercooled water have demonstrated that the CRI becomes increasingly ice-like at lower ...

Hale, G. M. and Querry, M. R.: Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-mm region, Appl. Optics, 12, 1973.; Bertie, J. E. and Lan, Z.: Infrared intensities of liquids XX: The intensity of the OH stretching band of liquid water revisited, and the best current values of the optical constants of H2O(l) at 25 °C between 15,000 and 1 cm^-1, Appl. Spec., 50, 1047–1057, 1996.; Cesana, G., Kay, J. E., Chepfer, H., English, J. M., and de Boer, G.: U...

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Lidar Observation of the 2011 Puyehue-cordón Caulle Volcanic Aeros...

By: O. Uchino; T. Nagai; I. Morino; B. Liley; K. Nakamae; T. Sakai; T. Yokota

Description: National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. On 4 June 2011, the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex (40.6° S, 72.1° W) in Chile erupted violently and injected volcanic aerosols into the atmosphere. For the safety of civil aviation, continuous lidar observations were made at Lauder, New Zealand (45.0° S, 169.7° E), from 11 June through 6 July 2011. The purpose of our study is to quantify the influence of the volcanic ejectio...

Alados-Arboledas, L., Olmo, F. J., Ohvril, H. O., Teral, H., Arak, M., and Teral, K.: Evolution of solar radiative effects of Mount Pinatubo at ground level, Tellus B, 49, 190–198, 1997.; Ansmann, A., Tesche, M., Groß, S., Freudenthaler, V., Seifert, P., Hiebsch, A., Schmidt, J., Wandinger, U., Mattis, I., Müller, D., and Wiegner, M.: The 16 April 2010 major volcanic ash plume over central Europe: EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations at Leipzig and Munich, ...

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Evidence for Ships Emissions in the Central Mediterranean Sea from...

By: S. Becagli; D. Meloni; G. Pace; A. Di Sarra; R. Udisti; C. Ghedini; D. M. Sferlazzo; F. Monteleone; G. Calzolai; C. Bommarito; R. Traversi; M. Severi; F. Lucarelli

Description: Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence), Italy. Measurements of aerosol chemical composition made on the island of Lampedusa, south of the Sicily channel, during years 2004–2008, are used to identify the influence of ship emissions on aerosol particles in the Central Mediterranean. Evidence of ship emissions influence is found in 17% of the daily samples. Aerosol samples influenced by s...

Agrawal, H., Malloy, Q., Welch, W. A., Miller, J. W., and Cocker D. R.: In-use gaseous and particulate matter emissions from a modern oceangoing container vessel, Atmos. Environ., 42, 5504–5510, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.02.053, 2008a.; Agrawal, H., Welch, W. A., Miller, J. W., and Cocker D. R.: Emission measurements from a crude oil tanker at sea, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 7098–7103,

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Climate Forcing and Air Quality Change Due to Regional Emissions R...

By: N. Unger; J.-f. Lamarque; D. Koch; S. Bauer; H. Teich; G. Faluveg; D. Shindell

Description: NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY, USA. We examine the air quality (AQ) and radiative forcing (RF) response to emissions reductions by economic sector for North America and developing Asia in the CAM and GISS composition/climate models. Decreases in annual average surface particulate are relatively robust, with intermodel variations in magnitude typically <30% and very similar spatial structure. Surface ozone responses are small and...

Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 955–966, 2001.; Arellano, A. F. J., Kasibhatla, P. S., Giglio, L., van der Werf, G. R., and Randerson, J. T.: Top-down estimates of global CO sources using mopitt measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L01104, doi:10.1029/2003GL018609, 2004.; Bauer, S. E., Mishchenko, M. I., Lacis, A., Zhang, S., Perlwitz, J., and Metzger, S. M.: Do sulfate and nitrate co...

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Sensitivity of Meteoric Smoke Distribution to Microphysical Proper...

By: M. Rapp; J. Gumbel; L. Megner

Description: Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. Meteoroids entering the Earth's atmopsphere experience strong deceleration and ablate, whereupon the resulting material is believed to re-condense to nanometre-size smoke particles. These particles are thought to be of great importance for many middle atmosphere phenomena, such as noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric summer echoes, metal layers, and heterogeneous chemistry. The prope...

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Chemical Characterization of Soa Formed from Aqueous-phase Reactio...

By: Q. Zhang; J. Smith; C. Anastasio; J. Laskin; L. Yu; A. Laskin

Description: Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA. Phenolic compounds, which are emitted in significant amounts from biomass burning, can undergo fast reactions in atmospheric aqueous phases to form secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA). In this study, we investigate the reactions of phenol and two methoxy-phenols (syringol and guaiacol) with two major aqueous phase oxidants – the triplet excited states o...

Aiken, A. C., DeCarlo, P. F., Kroll, J. H., Worsnop, D. R., Huffman, J. A., Canagaratna, M. R., Onasch, T. B., Alfarra, M. R., Prevot, A. S. H., Dommen, J., Duplissy, J., Metzger, A., Baltensperger, U., and Jimenez, J. L.: O/C and OM/OC ratios of primary, secondary, and ambient organic aerosols with a high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 4478–4485, doi:10.1021/es703009q, 2008...

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Evolution of Stratospheric Ozone and Water Vapour Time Series Stud...

By: C. Von Savigny; A. Jones; T. Sonkaew; P. Eriksson; D. Degenstein; J. Burrows; S. Brohede; A. Rozanov; A. Bourassa; C. Haley; J. Urban; D. P. Murtagh; H. Bovensmann

Description: Department of Radio and Space Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden. The long term evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapour has been investigated by extending satellite time series to April 2008. For ozone, we examine monthly average ozone values from various satellite data sets for nine latitude and altitude bins covering 60° S to 60° N and 20–45 km and covering the time period of 1979–2008. Data are from the Stratosph...

Baldwin, M. P., Gray, L. J., Dunkerton, T. J., Hamilton, K., Haynes, P. H., Randel, W. J., Holton, J. R., Alexander, M. J., Hirota, I., Horinouchi, T., Jones, D. B. A., Kinnersley, J. S., Marquardt, C., Sato, K., and Takahashi, M.: The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, Rev. Geophys., 39, 179–229, 2001.; Bhartia, P. K.: Total ozone from backscattered ultraviolet measurements, in Observing Systems for Atmospheric Composition, 48–63, Springer Science, New York, 2007.; Bhartia, P....

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Changes in Background Aerosol Composition in Finland During Pollut...

By: H. Tervahattu; H. Vehkamäki; S. Saarikoski; T. Mäkelä; R. Hillamo; L. Sogacheva; J. V. Niemi; M. Kulmala

Description: Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. Aerosol samples were collected at a rural background site in southern Finland in May 2004 during pollution episode (PM1~16 µg m−3, backward air mass trajectories from south-east), intermediate period (PM1~5 µg m−3, backtrajectories from north-east) and clean period (PM1~2 µg m−3<...

Al-Hosney, H. A. and Grassian, V. H.: Water, sulfur dioxide and nitric acid adsorption on calcium carbonate: A transmission and ATR-FTIR study, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 7, 1266–1276, 2005.; Andreae, M. O.: Soot carbon and excess fine potassium: Long-range transport of combustion derived aerosols, Science, 220, 1148–1151, 1983.; Andreae, M. O., Charlson, R. J., Bruynseels, F., Storms, H., Van Grieken, R., and Maenhaut, W.: Internal mixture of sea salt, silicates, and exce...

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The Cccma Third Generation Agcm and Its Extension Into the Middle ...

By: M. Lazare; J. Li; N. A. McFarlane; J. F. Scinocca; D. Plummer

Description: Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada, Victoria, B.C., Canada. The Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis third generation atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM3) is described. The discussion summarizes the details of the complete physics package emphasizing the changes made relative to the second generation version of the model. AGCM3 is the underlying model for applications which include the IPCC four...

Li, J.: Accounting for Unresolved Clouds in a 1D Infrared Radiative Transfer Model. Part I: Solution for Radiative Transfer, Including Cloud Scattering and Overlap, J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 3302–3320, 2002.; Li, J. and Barker, H. W.: Accounting for Unresolved Clouds in a 1D Infrared Radiative Transfer Model. Part II: Horizontal Variability of Cloud Water Path, J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 3321–3339, 2002.; Li, J. and Barker, H. W.: A radiation algorithm with correlated k-distribution....

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Air–snow Transfer of Nitrate on the East Antarctic Plateau – Part ...

By: S. Morin; M. D. King; J. L. France; J. Savarino; M. M. Frey; J. Erbland

Description: Université Grenoble Alpes, LGGE, 38000 Grenoble, France. Unraveling the modern budget of reactive nitrogen on the Antarctic plateau is critical for the interpretation of ice core records of nitrate. This requires accounting for nitrate recycling processes occurring in near surface snow and the overlying atmospheric boundary layer. Not only concentration measurements, but also isotopic ratios of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, provide constraints on the ...

Alexander, B., Hastings, M. G., Allman, D. J., Dachs, J., Thornton, J. A., and Kunasek, S. A.: Quantifying atmospheric nitrate formation pathways based on a global model of the oxygen isotopic composition ($\Delta ^17$O) of atmospheric nitrate, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 5043–5056, doi:10.5194/acp-9-5043-2009, 2009.; Atkinson, R., Baulch, D. L., Cox, R. A., Crowley, J. N., Hampson, R. F., Hynes, R. G., Jenkin, M. E., Ross...

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Source Characteristics of Volatile Organic Compounds During High O...

By: T. Wang; C. Cardelino; D. G. Streets; W. L. Chameides; D. R. Blake; J. Zhang

Description: School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) are analyzed to characterize the sources impacting the Hong Kong area. The ratios of different VOC species, m,p-xylenes-to-ethylbenzene, C6H14-to-toluene and p-xylene-to-total xylenes are used for diagnostic analyses. Photochemical age analysis shows that the sources of reactive aromatics, the most important contributor ...

Barletta, B., Meinardi, S., Simpson, I. J., Zou, S. C., Rowland, F. S., and Blake, D. R.: Ambient mixing ratios of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in two major urban centers of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region: Guangzhou and Dongguan, Atmos. Environ., 42, 4393–4408, 2008.; CH2M HILL (China) Limited: Final report: agreement No. CE 106/98: Study of Air Quality in the Pearl River Delta Region, April 2002.; Cass, G. R. and McRae, G. J.: Source-receptor reconciliation of ro...

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Effects of Model Chemistry and Data Biases on Stratospheric Ozone ...

By: D. R. Allen; J. P. McCormack; S. D. Eckermann; T. F. Hogan; L. Coy; I. Stajner

Description: E.O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA. The innovations or observation minus forecast (O−F) residuals produced by a data assimilation system provide a convenient metric of evaluating global analyses. In this study, O–F statistics from the Global Ozone Assimilation Testing System (GOATS) are used to examine how ozone assimilation products and their associated O−F statistics depend on input data biases and o...

Daley, R. and Barker, E.: NAVDAS: formulation and diagnostics, Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 869–883, 2001.; FULL TITLE %enter references here; Allen, D. R., Coy, L., Eckermann, S. D., McCormack, J. P., Manney, G. L., Hogan, T. F., and Kim, Y.-J.: NOGAPS-ALPHA simulations of the 2002 Southern Hemisphere stratospheric major warming, Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 498–518, 2006.; Bhartia, P. K., McPeters, R. D., Mateer, C. L., Flynn, L. E., and Wellemeyer, C.: Algorithm for the estimation of...

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On the Relationship Between Open Cellular Convective Cloud Pattern...

By: T. Yamaguchi; G. Feingold

Description: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA. Precipitation is thought to be a necessary but insufficient condition for the transformation of stratocumulus-topped closed cellular convection to open cellular cumuliform convection. Here we test the hypothesis that the spatial distribution of precipitation is a key element of the closed-to-open cell transition. A series of idealiz...

Ackerman, A. S., vanZanten, M. C., Stevens, B., Savic-Jovcic, V., Bretherton, C. S., Chlond, A., Golaz, J.-C., Jiang, H., Khairoutdinov, M., Krueger, S. K., Lewellen, D. C., Lock, A., Moeng, C.-H., Nakamura, K., Petters, M. D., Snider, J. R., Weinbrecht, S., and Zulauf, M.: Large-eddy simulations of a drizzling, stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer, Mon. Weather Rev., 137, 1083–1110, 2009.; Bohren, C. F.: Multiple scattering of light and some of its observable cons...

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Retrieval of Stratospheric Ozone Profiles from Mipas/Envisat Limb ...

By: T. Von Clarmann; G. P. Stiller; H. Fischer; B. Funke; D.-y. Wang; U. Grabowski; M. Milz; G. Mengistu Tsidu; M. López-puertas; T. Steck; S. Gil-lópez; N. Glatthor; M. Höpfner; A. Linden; S. Kellmann

Description: Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Karlsruhe, Germany. We report on the dependence of ozone volume mixing ratio profiles, retrieved from limb emission infrared spectra of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), on different retrieval setups such as the treatment of the background continuum, cloud filtering, spectral regions used for analysis and a series of further more technical para...

Biermann, U. M., Luo, B. P., and Peter, T.: Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H$_2$SO$_4$, HNO$_3$, and H$_2$O in the mid infrared at atmospheric temperatures, J. Phys. Chem. (A), 104, 4, 783–793, 2000.; Clough, S.A.: The water vapor continuum and its role in remote sensing, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, vol. 2 of OSA Tech. Dig. Ser., 76–78, Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995.; Cousin, C., Le Doucen...

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Exploring the Chemical Fate of the Sulfate Radical Anion by Reacti...

By: H. Vehkamäki; N. Bork; N. T. Tsona

Description: Division of Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysics, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. The gas phase reaction between SO4(H2O)n and SO2, n = 0–2, is investigated using ab initio calculations and kinetic modeling. Structures of reactants, transition states and products are reported. Our calculations predict that the SO

Alder, T. B., Knizia, G., and Werner, H.-J.: A simple and efficient CCSD(T)-F12 approximation, J. Chem. Phys., 127, 221106-1–221106-4, doi:10.1063/1.2817618, 2007.; Atkins, P. and de Paula, J.: Physical Chemistry, 8th edn., Oxford University Press, New York, 2006.; Boldyrev, A. I. and Simons, J.: Isolated \chemSO_4^{2-} and \chemPO_3^- anions do not exist, J. Phys. Chem., 98, 2298–2300, 1994.; Bork, N., Kurtén, T., Enghoff,...

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4D-var Assimilation of Mipas Chemical Observations: Ozone and Nitr...

By: S. Chabrillat; F. Daerden; J. C. Lambert; S. Bonjean; W. A. Lahoz; Q. Errera; S. Viscardy; D. Fonteyn

Description: Insitut d'Aéronomie Spatiale de Belgique, BIRA-IASB, Belgium. This paper discusses the global analyses of stratospheric ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) obtained by the Belgian Assimilation System for Chemical Observations from Envisat (BASCOE). Based on a chemistry transport model (CTM) and the 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) method, BASCOE has assimilated chemical observations of O3, NO2, HNO3

Bouttier, F. and Courtier, P.: Data assimilation concepts and methods, March 1999, in: Meteorological Training Course Lecture Series, ECMWF, 2002.; Baier, F., Erbertseder, T., Morgenstern, O., Bittner, M., and Brasseur, G.: Assimilation of MIPAS observations using a three-dimensional global chemistry-transport model, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131, 3529–3542, \doi10.1256/qj.05.92, 2005.; Bhatt, P P., Remsberg, E E., Gordley, L L., McInerney, J M., Brackett, V G., and Russe...

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Eclipse Effects on Field Crops and Marine Zooplankton: the 29 Marc...

By: E. D. Christou; E. Gerasopoulos; A. Giannakourou; E. Papathanassiou; V. Kotoulas; A. Karamanos; D. Lyra; G. Economou; P. Vahamidis; D. Georgopoulos; M. Tzortziou; N. Tsakalis

Description: Lab. of Agronomy, Faculty of Plant Production, Agricultural Univ. of Athens, 75 Iera Odos Str., 11855 Athens, Greece. Some effects in the biosphere from the Total Solar Eclipse of 29 March 2006 were investigated in field crops and marine zooplankton. Taking into account the decisive role of light on plant life and productivity, measurements of photosynthesis and stomatal behaviour were conducted on seven important field-grown cereal and leguminous crops....

Backus, R. H., Clark Jun, R. C., and Wing, A. S.: Behaviour of certain marine organisms during the solar eclipse of July 20, 1963, Nature, 205, 989–991, 1965.; Baker, N. R., Farage, P. K., Stirling, C. M., and Long S. P.: Photoinhibition of crop photosyhtesis in the field at low temperatures, in: Photoinhibition of Photosynthesis, edited by: Baker, N. R. and Bowyer, J. R., BIOS Scientific Publishers, London, 349-363, 1994.; Banse, K.: On the vertical distribution of zoop...

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Impact of Particle Shape on the Morphology of Noctilucent Clouds :...

By: U. Berger; G. Baumgarten; F.-j. Lübken; J. Kiliani

Description: Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics at Rostock University, Schlossstraße 6, 18225 Kühlungsborn, Germany. Noctilucent clouds (NLC) occur during summer in the polar region at altitudes around 83 km. They consist of ice particles with a typical size around 50 nm. The shape of NLC particles is less well known, but important both for interpreting optical measurements and modeling ice cloud characteristics. In this paper, NLC modeling is a...

Bardeen, C. G., Toon, O. B., Jensen, E. J., Hervig, M. E., Randall, C. E., Benze, S., Marsh, D. R., and Merkel, A.: Numerical simulations of the three-dimensional distribution of polar mesospheric clouds and comparisons with Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) experiment and the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment (SOFIE) observations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D10204, doi:10.1029/2009JD012451, 2010.; Baumgarten, G. and...

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Mesoscale Temperature Fluctuations in the Southern Hemisphere Stra...

By: B. L. Gary

Description: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, USA. Isentrope surfaces in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere reveal that air parcels undergo mesoscale temperature fluctuations that depend on latitude and season. The largest temperature fluctuations occur at high latitude winter, whereas the smallest fluctuations occur at high latitude summer. This is the same pattern found for the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere. However, the amplitude of the seasonal depe...

Gary, B. L.: Mesoscale temperature fluctuations in the stratosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4577–4589, 2006.

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Technical Note: the Horizontal Scale-dependence of the Cloud Overl...

By: L. Di Girolamo; I. Astin

Description: Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Bath, UK. The cloud overlap parameter alpha relates the combined cloud fraction between two altitude levels in a grid box to the cloud fraction as derived under the maximum and random overlap assumptions. In a number of published studies in this and other journals it is found that alpha tends to increase with increasing scale. In this technical note, we investigate this analytically...

Clark, C. E.: The greatest of a finite set of random variables, Operations Res., 9, 145–162, 1961.; Astin, I. and Di Girolamo, L.: A general formalism for the distribution of the total length of a geophysical parameter along a finite transect, IEEE Geosci. Remote S., 37, 508–512, 1999.; Astin, I. and Di Girolamo, L.: The relationship between alpha and the cross-correlation of cloud fraction, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 132, 2475–2478,

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