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In-cloud Oxalate Formation in the Global Troposphere: a 3-d Modeli...

By: J. Sciare; A. Segers; K. Tsigaridis; N. Mihalopoulos; A. Nenes; S. Myriokefalitakis; M. Kanakidou

Description: Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, 71003, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, Greece. Organic acids attract increasing attention as contributors to atmospheric acidity, secondary organic aerosol mass and aerosol hygroscopicity. Oxalic acid is globally the most abundant dicarboxylic acid, formed via chemical oxidation of gas-phase precursors in the aqueous phase of aerosols and droplets. Its lifecy...

Allen, A. G. and Miguel, A. H.: Biomass burning in the Amazon: characterization of the ionic component of aerosols generated from flaming and smoldering rainforest and Savannah, Environ. Sci. Technol., 29, 486–493, 1995.; Altieri, K. E., Carlton, A. G., Lim, H. J., Turpin, B. J., and Seitzinger, S.: Evidence for oligomer formation in clouds: Reactions of isoprene oxidation products, Environ. Sci. Technol., 40, 4956–4960, 2006.; Altieri, K. E., Seitzinger, S. P., and Carl...

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The Role of Carbonyl Sulphide as a Source of Stratospheric Sulphat...

By: P. J. Crutzen; H. Tost; J. Lelieveld; C. Brühl

Description: Atmospheric Chemistry Department, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany. Globally, carbonyl sulphide (COS) is the most abundant sulphur gas in the atmosphere. Our chemistry-climate model of the lower and middle atmosphere with aerosol module realistically simulates the background stratospheric sulphur cycle, as observed by satellites in volcanically quiescent periods. The model results indicate that upward transport of COS from the troposp...

Andreae, M. O.: Ocean-atmosphere interactions in the global biogeochemical sulphur cycle, Marine Chem., 30, 1–29, 1990.; Aydin, M., Williams, M. B., Tatum, C., and Saltzman, E. S.: Carbonyl sulfide in air extracted from a South Pole ice core: a 2000 year record, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 7533–7542, doi:10.5194/acp-8-7533-2008, 2008.; Bandy, A. R., Thornton, D. C., Scott, D. L., Lalevic, M., Lewis, E. E., and Driedger III...

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Uv Albedo of Arctic Snow in Spring : Volume 8, Issue 1 (29/02/2008)

By: M. Toikka; K. Lakkala; A. Kontu; A. Heikkilä; O. Meinander; L. Ylianttila

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. BOX 503, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. The relevance of snow for climate studies is based on its physical properties, such as high surface reflectivity. Surface ultraviolet (UV) albedo is an essential parameter for various applications based on radiative transfer modeling. Here, new continuous measurements of the local UV albedo of natural Arctic snow were made at Sodankylä (67.37° N, 26.63° E, 179 m a.s.l.) during the ...

Bernhard, G. and Seckmeyer, G.: Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance, J. Geophys. Res. 104(D12), 14 321–14 345, 1999.; Arola, A., Kaurola, J., Koskinen, L., Tanskanen, A., Tikkanen, T., Taalas, P., Herman, J.R., Krotkov, N. and Fioletov, V.: A new approach to estimating the albedo for snow-covered surfaces in the satellite UV method, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D17), 4531, doi:10.1029/2003JD003492, 2003.; Bais, A. F. and Dan Lubin, D.; Chapter 7: Surface...

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Accommodation Coefficient of Hobr on Deliquescent Sodium Bromide A...

By: M. Ammann; R. Von Glasow; H. W. Gäggeler; M. Wachsmuth

Description: Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Radio- and Environmental Chemistry, Villigen, Switzerland. Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2) and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr) aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of...

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Global Risk from the Atmospheric Dispersion of Radionuclides by Nu...

By: J. Lelieveld; Y. Proestos; T. Christoudias

Description: The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus. We estimate the global risk from the release and atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides from nuclear power plant accidents using the EMAC atmospheric chemistry–general circulation model. We included all nuclear reactors that are currently operational, under construction and planned or proposed. We implemented constant continuous emissions from each location in the model and simulated atmospheric transport a...

Anspaugh, L., Catlin, R., and Goldman, M.: The global impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident, Science, 242, 1513–1519, 1988.; Arnold, D., Gufler, K., Kromp, W., Kromp-Kolb, H., Mraz, G., Seibert, P., Sholly, S., Sutter, P., and Wenisch, A.: flexRISK – Flexible tools for assessment of nuclear risk in Europe, in: Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XXI, Springer, 737–740, 2012.; Christoudias, T. and Lelieveld, J.: Modelling the global atmospheric transport and dep...

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An Intensive Study of Aerosol Optical Properties in Beijing Urban ...

By: A. K. H. Lau; M. H. Wang; C. C. Li; Z. Z. Deng; X. Y. Liu; X. He; J. T. Mao

Description: Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University (PKU), Beijing, China. In order to quantify the aerosol impact on climate, a range of aerosol parameters are required. In this paper, two-year of ground-based observations of aerosol optical properties from an urban site in Beijing of China are assessed. The aerosol absorption coefficient (Σa), scattering coefficient (Σs), as well as single scattering albedo (ω) are...

Ando, M., Katagiri, K., Tamura, K., et al.: Indoor and outdoor air pollution in Tokyo and Beijing supercities, Atmos. Environ., 30, 695–702, 1994.; Arnott, W. P., Moosmuller, H., Sheridan, P. J., et al.: Photoacoustic and filter-based ambient aerosol light absorption measurements: Instrument comparisons and the role of relative humidity, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D1), 4034, doi:10.1029/2002JD002165, 2003.; Barnard, J. C., Kassianov, E. I., Ackerman, T. P., Johnson, K., Zuber...

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Characterising Terrestrial Influences on Antarctic Air Masses Usin...

By: A. G. Williams; S.-j. Park; J. Crawford; S.-b. Hong; A. D. Griffiths; S. D. Chambers

Description: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC NSW 2232, Australia. We report on one year of high-precision direct hourly radon observations at King Sejong Station (King George Island) beginning in February 2013. Findings are compared with historic and ongoing radon measurements from other Antarctic sites. Monthly median concentrations reduced from 72 mBq m−3 in late-summer to 44 mBq m−3 in late...

Balkanski, Y. J. and Jacob, D. J.: Transport of continental air to the subantarctic Indian Ocean, Tellus B, 42, 62–75, 1990.; Berresheim, H. and Eisele, F. L.: Sulfur chemistry in the Antarctic Troposphere Experiment: An overview of project SCATE, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 1619–1627, 1998.; Chambers, S., Williams, A. G., Zahorowski, W., Griffiths, A. D., and Crawford, J.: Separating remote fetch and local mixing influences on vertical radon measurements in the lower atmosph...

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Simulating Ultrafine Particle Formation in Europe Using a Regional...

By: S. N. Pandis; C. Fountoukis; A. Wiedensohler; H. A. C. Denier Van Der Gon; C. Pilinis; P. E. Charalampidis; C. O'Dowd; M. Moerman; J. P. Putaud; I. Riipinen

Description: Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (ICEHT/FORTH), Patras, Greece. A three-dimensional regional chemical transport model (CTM) with detailed aerosol microphysics, PMCAMx-UF, was applied to the European domain to simulate the contribution of direct emissions and secondary formation to total particle number concentrations during May 2008. PMCAMx-UF uses the Dynamic Model for Aerosol Nucleation and the T...

Adams, P. J. and Seinfeld, J. H.: Predicting global aerosol size distributions in general circulation models, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4370, doi:10.1029/2001JD001010, 2002.; Anttila, T. and Kerminen V.-M.: Condensational growth of atmospheric nuclei by organic vapours, J. Aerosol Sci., 34, 41–61, doi:10.1016/S0021-8502(02)00155-6, 2003.; Asmi, A., Wiedensohler, A....

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Does the Poa–soa Split Matter for Global Ccn Formation? : Volume 1...

By: P. J. Adams; W. Trivitayanurak

Description: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. A model of carbonaceous aerosols has been implemented in the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics module in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM), a model driven by assimilated meteorology. Inclusion of carbonaceous emissions alongside pre-existing treatments of sulfate and sea-salt aerosols increases the number of emitted pri...

Fitzgerald, J. W.: Marine Aerosols – a Review, Atmos. Environ. A-Gen., 25, 533–545, 1991.; Adams, P. J. and Seinfeld, J. H.: Predicting global aerosol size distributions in general circulation models, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 107, AAC 4-1–AAC 4-23, doi:10.1029/2001JD001010, 2002.; Adams, P. J. and Seinfeld, J. H.: Disproportionate impact of particulate emissions on global cloud condensation nuclei concentrations, Geophys...

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Influence of Semi-volatile Species on Particle Hygroscopic Growth ...

By: M. Monier; K. Sellegri; P. Laj; P. Villani

Description: UMR6016, Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique (LaMP), Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-Ferrand Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, France. The hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles are often related to their content of soluble material, on the basis of the Kohler theory. Recent studies, however, seem to indicate that the role of aerosol particle semi-volatile fraction properties has been underestimated. In this study, we use a ...

Andrews, E. and Larson, S. M.: Effect of surfactant layers on the size changes of aerosol particles as a function of relative humidity, Environ. Sci. Technol. 27, 857–865, 1993.; Ansari, A. S. and Pandis, S. N.: Water absorption by secondary organic aerosol and its effect on inorganic aerosol behavior, Environ. Sci. Technol., 34, 71–77, 2000.; Berg, O. H., E. Swietlicki, G. Frank, B.G. Martinsson, S.-I. Cederfelt, P. Laj, L. Ricci, A. Berner, U., Dusek, Z., Galambos, N. ...

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Measurements of Photo-oxidation Products from the Reaction of a Se...

By: C. Bloss; V. Wagner; A. C. Lewis; K. Wirtz; B. T. Golding; M. J. Pilling; J. F. Hamilton; M. Martin-reviejo; A. P. Henderson

Description: University of Leeds, Department of Chemistry, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. Photo-oxidation products from the reaction of a series of alkyl-benzenes, (benzene, toluene, p-xylene and 1,3,5-trimethyl-benzene) with hydroxyl radicals in the presence of NOx have been investigated using comprehensive gas chromatography (GCxGC). A GCxGC system has been developed which utilises valve modulation and independent separations as a...

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Application of Φ-iasi to Iasi: Retrieval Products Evaluation and R...

By: G. Grieco; A. Carissimo; G. Masiello; C. Serio; M. Matricardi

Description: Dipartimento di Ingnegeria e Fisica dell'Ambiente, University of Basilicata, 85100 Potenza, Italy. Retrieval products for temperature, water vapour and ozone have been obtained from spectral radiances measured by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer flying onboard the first European Meteorological Operational satellite. These products have been used to check the consistency of the forward model and its accuracy and the expected retrieval per...

AER: http://www.rtweb.aer.com/line_param_frame.html, access: 15 April 2009.; Amato, U., De Canditiis, D., and Serio, C.: Effect of Apodization on the Retrieval of Geophysical Parameters from Fourier-Transform Spectrometers, Appl. Optics, 37, 6537–6543, 1998.; Anderson, G. P., Clough, S. A., Kneizys, F. X., Chetwind, J. H., and Shettle, E. P.: AFGL Atmospheric concentration profiles (0–120 km), AFGL-TR-86-0110, AF...

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Long-term in Situ Measurements of NoX and NoY at Jungfraujoch 1998...

By: U. Weers; M. Steinbacher; D. Brunner; J. Staehelin; S. Pandey Deolal

Description: Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland. We present an analysis of the NOy (NOx + other oxidized species) measurements at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch (JFJ, 3580 m a.s.l.) for the period 1998–2009, which is the longest continous NOy data set reported from the lower free troposphere worldwide. Due to stringent emission control regulations, nitrogen oxid...

Baltensperger, U., Gaggeler, H. W., Jost, D. T., Lugauer, M., Schwikowski, M., Weingartner, E., and Seibert, P.: Aerosol climatology at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 102, 19707–19715, 1997.; Bertman, S. B., Roberts, J. M., Parrish, D. D., Buhr, M. P., Goldan, P. D., Kuster, W. C., Fehsenfeld, F. C., Montzka, S. A., and Westberg, H.: Evolution of alkyl nitrates with air mass age, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 100, 22805–22813, 1995.; ...

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Sources and Contributions of Wood Smoke During Winter in London: A...

By: C. H. Halios; D. C. S. Beddows; J. Yin; W. J. Bloss; A. S. H. Prevot; S. Szidat; M. R. Heal; P. Williams; R. M. Harrison; J. D. Lee; J. D. Allan; P. Zotter; J. F. Barlow; L. R. Crilley; D. E. Young; C. Mohr; M. Flynn

Description: School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. Determining the contribution of wood smoke to air pollution in large cities such as London is becoming increasingly important due to the changing nature of domestic heating in urban areas. During winter, biomass burning emissions can exceed the contributions from traffic emissions, and have been identified as a major cause of exceedences of...

Aiken, A. C., DeCarlo, P. F., Kroll, J. H., Worsnop, D. R., Huffman, J. A., Docherty, K. S., Ulbrich, I. M., Mohr, C., Kimmel, J. R., Sueper, D., Sun, Y., Zhang, Q., Trimborn, A., Northway, M., Ziemann, P. J., Canagaratna, M. R., Onasch, T. B., Alfarra, M. R., Prevot, A. S. H., Dommen, J., Duplissy, J., Metzger, A., Baltensperger, U., and Jimenez, J. L.: O/C and OM/OC ratios of primary, secondary, and ambient organic aerosols with high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol m...

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Chemistry of the Antarctic Boundary Layer and the Interface with S...

By: G. P. Mills; R. A. Salmon; J. D. Lee; E. W. Wolff; P. Hamer; A. V. Jackson; D. E. Shallcross; P. S. Anderson; J. M. C. Plane; D. Ames; Z. L. Fleming; K. A. Read; W. J. Bloss; H. K. Roscoe; K. C. Clemitshaw; S. L. Walker; S. J.-b. Bauguitte; W. T. Sturges; D. R. Worton; D. E. Heard; A. C. Lewis; A. E. Jones; A. Saiz-lopez

Description: British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK. CHABLIS (Chemistry of the Antarctic Boundary Layer and the Interface with Snow) was a collaborative UK research project aimed at probing the detailed chemistry of the Antarctic boundary layer and the exchange of trace gases at the snow surface. The centre-piece to CHABLIS was the measurement campaign, conducted at the British Antarctic Surv...

Berresheim, H. and Eisele, F. L.: Sulfur Chemistry in the Antarctic Troposphere Experiment: An overview of the Project SCATE, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D1), 1619–1627, 1998.; Bloss, W. J., Lee, J. D., Heard, D. E., Salmon, R. A., Bauguitte, S. J.-B., Roscoe, H. K., and Jones, A. E.: Observations of OH and HO2 radicals in coastal Antarctica, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4171–4185, 2007.; Crawford, J. H., Davis, D. D., Chen, G., Buhr, M., Oltmans, S., Weller, R., Mauldin,...

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Contact Freezing: a Review : Volume 13, Issue 3 (21/03/2013)

By: O. Stetzer; U. Lohmann; L. A. Ladino

Description: Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland. This manuscript compiles both theoretical and experimental information on contact freezing with the aim to better understand this potentially important but still not well quantified heterogeneous freezing mode. There is no complete theory that describes contact freezing and how the energy barrier has to be overcome to nucleate an ice crystal by co...

Abbatt, J., Benz, S., Cziczo, D., Kanji, Z., Lohmann, U., and M{ö}hler, O.: Solid ammonium sulfate aerosols as ice nuclei: a pathway for cirrus cloud formation, Science, 313, 1770–1773, 2006.; Andronache, C., Grönholm, T., Laakso, L., Phillips, V., and Venäläginen, A.: Scavenging of ultrafine particles by rainfall at a boreal site: observations and model estimations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4739–4754, doi:10.5194/acp-6-473...

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Technical Note: the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model Flexpart ...

By: C. Forster; P. Seibert; A. Stohl; A. Frank; G. Wotawa

Description: Norwegian Institute of Air Research, Kjeller, Norway. The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART was originally (about 8 years ago) designed for calculating the long-range and mesoscale dispersion of air pollutants from point sources, such as after an accident in a nuclear power plant. In the meantime FLEXPART has evolved into a comprehensive tool for atmospheric transport modeling and analysis. Its application fields were extended from air pollu...

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Observational Study of Influence of Aerosol Hygroscopic Growth on ...

By: J. Tang; J. Z. Ma; A. Gbaguidi; X. L. Pan; Z. F. Wang; Y. L. Sun; P. Yan

Description: Chinese Academy of Meteorological Science, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing, China. We investigated aerosol hygroscopic growth property and its influence on scattering coefficient using M9003 nephelometers in coupling with humidity controlled inlet system at a rural site near Beijing mega-city from 24 April to 15 May 2006. Inlet relative humidity was controlled in an increasing range of 40%–90% while aerosol hygroscopic growth factor of scatt...

Aklilu, Y., Mozurkewich, M., Prenni, A. J., et al.: Hygroscopicity of particles at two rural, urban influenced sites during Pacific 2001: Comparison with estimates of water uptake from particle composition, Atmos. Environ., 40(15), 2650–2661, 2006.; Berg, O. H., Swietlicki, E., and Krejci, R.: Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in the marine boundary layer over the Pacific and Southern Oceans during the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1), J. Geophys. ...

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A Molecular-level Approach for Characterizing Water-insoluble Comp...

By: P. G. Hatcher; A. S. Wozniak; A. S. Willoughby

Description: Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA. The chemical composition of organic aerosols in the atmosphere is strongly influenced by human emissions. The effect these have on the environment, human health, and climate change is determined by the molecular nature of these chemical species. The complexity of organic aerosol samples limits the ability to study the chemical composition, and therefore the associate...

Alfarra, M. R., Paulsen, D., Gysel, M., Garforth, A. A., Dommen, J., Prévôt, A. S. H., Worsnop, D. R., Baltensperger, U., and Coe, H.: A mass spectrometric study of secondary organic aerosols formed from the photooxidation of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors in a reaction chamber, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 5279–5293, doi:10.5194/acp-6-5279-2006, 2006.; Altieri, K. E., Hastings, M. G., Peters, A. J., and Sigman, D. M...

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Comparison of Total Ozone from the Satellite Instruments Gome and ...

By: A. Bracher; J. P. Burrows; K. Bramstedt; D. Loyola; W. Thomas; M. Weber; J. Gleason

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. Over the last 3 decades, satellite data have been used to monitor long-term global changes in stratospheric ozone. The TOMS series (1978 -- present) and GOME (1995 -- present) are two very important instruments in this context. In this paper, TOMS total ozone and three approaches to derive total ozone from GOME measurements are validated with ground-based Dobson networ...

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