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Determining the Spatial and Seasonal Variability in Om/Oc Ratios A...

By: N. H. Frank; J. L. Swall; P. V. Bhave; H. Simon; W. C. Malm

Description: US EPA, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Atmospheric Modeling and Analysis Division, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. Data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network are used to estimate organic mass to organic carbon (OM/OC) ratios across the United States by extending previously published multiple regression techniques. Our new methodology addresses common pitfalls of multiple regression including measureme...

Aiken, A., Decarlo, P. F., Kroll, J. H., et al.: O/C and OM/OC ratios of primary, secondary, and ambient organic aerosols with high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 4478–4485, doi:10.1021/es703009q, 2008.; Chan, T. W., Huang, L., Leaitch, W. R., Sharma, S., Brook, J. R., Slowik, J. G., Abbatt, J. P. D., Brickell, P. C., Liggio, J., Li, S.-M., and Moosmüller, H.: Observations of OM/OC and specific attenuation coefficients (S...

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On the Changing Seasonal Cycles and Trends of Ozone at MacE Head, ...

By: D. C. Carslaw

Description: Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. A seasonal-trend decomposition technique based on a locally-weighted regression smoothing (Loess) approach has been used to decompose monthly ozone concentrations at Mace Head (Ireland) into trend, seasonal and irregular components. The trend component shows a steady increase from 1990–2004, which is confirmed by statistical testing which shows that ozone concentrations at Mace Hea...

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Temporal and Spatial Variability of Glyoxal as Observed from Space...

By: M. Vrekoussis; A. Richter; J. P. Burrows; F. Wittrock

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics and Remote Sensing, IUP, University of Bremen, NW1, P.O. Box 33 04 40, 28334 Bremen, Germany. Glyoxal, CHO.CHO, is produced during the oxidation of volatile organic compounds, VOC, released by anthropogenic activities, biogenic processes and biomass burning. It has a short chemical lifetime of a few hours in the boundary layer and lower troposphere and therefore serves as an indicator and a marker of photochemical hot-s...

Abbot, D. S., Palmer, P. I., Martin, R. V., Chance, K. V., Jacob, D. J., and Guenther, A.: Seasonal and interannual variability of North American isoprene emissions as determined by formaldehyde column measurements from space, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(17), 1886, doi:10.1029/2003gl017336, 2003.; Bloss, C., Wagner, V., Jenkin, M. E., Volkamer, R., Bloss, W. J., Lee, J. D., Heard, D. E., Wirtz, K., Martin-Reviejo, M., Rea, G., Wenger, J. C., and Pilling, M. J.: Development o...

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Α-pinene Photooxidation Under Controlled Chemical Conditions – Par...

By: N. C. Eddingsaas; P. O. Wennberg; L. D. Yee; C. L. Loza; J. H. Seinfeld

Description: Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA. The OH oxidation of α-pinene under both low- and high-NOx environments was studied in the Caltech atmospheric chambers. Ozone was kept low to ensure OH was the oxidant. The initial α-pinene concentration was 20–50 ppb to ensure that the dominant peroxy radical pathway under low-NOx conditions is reaction with HO2 and und...

Alvarado, A., Tuazon, E. C., Aschmann, S. M., Atkinson, R., and Arey, J.: Products of the gas-phase reactions of O(^3P) atoms and O3 with alpha -pinene and 1,2-dimethyl-1-cyclohexene, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 103, 25541–25551, doi:10.1029/98JD00524, 1998.; Arey, J., Atkinson, R., and Aschmann, S. M.: Produt study of the gas-phase reactions of monoterpenes with the OH radical in the presence of NO

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Thermodynamics and Kinetics of the Hydrolysis of Atmospherically R...

By: M. J. Elrod; A. I. Darer; K. S. Hu

Description: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, USA. The presence of alcohol, organonitrate, and organosulfate species related to the gaseous precursor isoprene in ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA) has stimulated investigations of the nature of SOA-phase chemical processing. Recent work has suggested that certain isoprene-derived organonitrates are able to efficiently convert to organosulfates and alcohols on ambient SOA....

Altieri, K. E., Turpin, B. J., and Seitzinger, S. P.: Oligomers, organosulfates, and nitrooxy organosulfates in rainwater identified by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2533–2542, doi:10.5194/acp-9-2533-2009, 2009.; Baker, J. W. and Easty, D. M.: Hydrolytic decomposition of esters of nitric acid. I. General experimental techniques. Alkaline hydrolysis and n...

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Sage III Aerosol Extinction Validation in the Arctic Winter: Compa...

By: L. R. Poole; C. E. Randall; L. W. Thomason

Description: NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, USA. The use of SAGE III multiwavelength aerosol extinction coefficient measurements to infer PSC type is contingent on the robustness of both the extinction magnitude and its spectral variation. Past validation with SAGE II and other similar measurements has shown that the SAGE III extinction coefficient measurements are reliable though the comparisons have been greatly weighted toward measurements made ...

Alfred, J., Fromm, M., Bevilacqua, R., et al.: Observations and analysis of polar stratospheric clouds detected by POAM III and SAGE III during the SOLVE II/VINTERSOL campaign in the 2002/2003 Northern Hemisphere winter, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 11 391–11 426, 2006.; Chu, W. P., McCormick, M. P., Lenoble, J., Brogniez, C., and Pruvost, P.: SAGE II inversion algorithm, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 8339–8351, 1989.; Curtius, J., Weigel, R., Vössing, H.-J., Wernli, H., Wern...

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Ice Nucleation by Fungal Spores from the Classes Agaricomycetes, U...

By: J. Chen; S. M. Burrows; M. J. Wheeler; R. Iannone; R. H. Mason; D. I. Haga; E. A. Polishchuk; A. K. Bertram; U. Pöschl

Description: Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, V6T 1Z1, British Columbia, Canada. We studied the ice nucleation properties of 12 different species of fungal spores chosen from three classes: Agaricomycetes, Ustilaginomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes. Agaricomycetes include many types of mushroom species and are widely distributed over the globe. Ustilaginomycetes are agricultural pathoge...

Aghedo, A. M., Rast, S., and Schultz, M. G.: Sensitivity of tracer transport to model resolution, prescribed meteorology and tracer lifetime in the general circulation model ECHAM5, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 3385–3396, doi:10.5194/acp-10-3385-2010, 2010.; Allan, E. J. and Prosser, J. I.: Mycelial growth and branching of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) on solid medium, J. Gen. Microbiol., 129, 2029–2036, 1983.; Amato, P.,...

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Observation of 2-methyltetrols and Related Photo-oxidation Product...

By: T. Ruuskanen; M. Kulmala; W. Maenhaut; M. Claeys; I. Kourtchev

Description: Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp, Belgium. Oxidation products of isoprene including 2-methyltetrols (2-methylthreitol and 2-methylerythritol), 2-methylglyceric acid and triol derivatives of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene (cis and trans) and 3-methyl-2,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene) have been detected in boreal forest PM1 aerosols collect...

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The Variability of Tropical Ice Cloud Properties as a Function of ...

By: J. Haynes; P. T. May; J. Delanoë; A. Protat; M. Pope; C. Jakob; E. O'Connor; M. C. Wheeler

Description: Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne, Australia. The statistical properties of non-precipitating tropical ice clouds over Darwin, Australia are characterized using ground-based radar-lidar observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The ice cloud properties analysed are the frequency of ice cloud occurrence, the morphological properties (cloud top height and thickness, cloud fraction as ...

Bony, S., Colman, R., Kattsov, V. M., Allan, R. P., Bretherton, C. S., Dufresne, J. L., Hall, A., Hallegatte, S., Holland, M. M., Ingram, W., Randall, D. A., Soden, B. J., Tselioudis, G., and Webb, M. J.: How well do we understand and evaluate climate change feedback processes?, J. Climate, 19, 3445–3482, 2006.; Bouniol, D., Protat, A., Delanoë, J., Pelon, J., Donovan, D. P., Piriou, J.-M., Bouyssel, F., Tompkins, A. M., Wilson, D., Morille, Y., Haeffelin, M., O'Connor, ...

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Atmospheric Occurrence, Transport and Deposition of Polychlorinate...

By: J. Castro-jiménez; J. Wollgast; J. Dachs; N. Berrojalbiz; G. Mariani; G. Hanke

Description: Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA – CSIC), Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain. The Mediterranean and Black Seas are unique marine environments subject to important anthropogenic pressures due to direct and indirect loads of atmospheric inputs of organochlorine compounds (OCl) from primary and secondary sources. Here we report the results obtained during two east-west sampling cruises in June...

Albaigés, J.: Persistent organic pollutants in the Mediterranean Sea, in: The Mediterranean Sea, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 89–149, 2005.; Anderson, P. N. and Hites, R. A.: OH radical reactions: the major removal pathway for polychlorinated biphenyls from the atmosphere, Environ. Sci. Technol., 30, 1756–1763, 1996.; Berrojalbiz, N., Dachs, J., Del Vento, S., Ojeda, M. J., Valle, M. C., Castro-Jiménez, J., Mariani, G., Wollgast, J., and Hanke, G.: Persistent organic po...

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Multi-model Study of Chemical and Physical Controls on Transport o...

By: S. R. Arnold; G. Ancellet; S. D. Steenrod; K. S. Law; L. K. Emmons; J. C. Raut; J. Mao; C. Wilson; Y. Long; J. L. Thomas; J. Flemming; M. P. Chipperfield; V. Huijnen; H. Schlager; J. Langner; B. N. Duncan; S. Tilmes; S. A. Monks; S. Turquety

Description: Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. Using observations from aircraft, surface stations and satellite, we comprehensively evaluate multi-model simulations of carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) in the Arctic and over lower latitude emission regions, as part of the POLARCAT Model Inter-comparison Project (POLMIP). Evaluation of eleven atmospheric models with chemistry shows ...

ACIA: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment – Scientific Report, 21–60, Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, 2005.; Ancellet, G., Leclair de Bellevue, J., Mari, C., Nedelec, P., Kukui, A., Borbon, A., and Perros, P.: Effects of regional-scale and convective transports on tropospheric ozone chemistry revealed by aircraft observations during the wet season of the AMMA campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 383–411, doi:10.5194/ac...

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Tropical Cyclogenesis in a Tropical Wave Critical Layer: Easterly ...

By: Z. Wang; M. T. Montgomery; T. J. Dunkerton

Description: NorthWest Research Associates, Bellevue WA, USA. The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a surface low along the wave as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, resembles the fami...

Alexander, M. J. and Dunkerton, T. J.: A spectral parameterization of mean-flow forcing due to breaking gravity waves, J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 4167–4182, 1999.; Andrews, D. G. and McIntyre, M. E.: An exact theory of nonlinear waves on a Lagrangian mean flow, J. Fluid Mech., 89, 609–646, 1978.; Andrews, D. G., Holton, J. R., and Leovy, C. B.: Middle Atmosphere Dynamics, Academic Press, 504 pp., 1987.; Bassom, A. P. and Gilbert, A. D.: The spiral wind-up and dissipation of vor...

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Validation of Cloud Property Retrievals with Simulated Satellite R...

By: T. Zinner; B. Mayer; M. Reuter; C. Keil; W. Thomas; L. Bugliaro; R. Hollmann

Description: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, 82234 Wessling, Germany. Validation of cloud properties retrieved from passive spaceborne imagers is essential for cloud and climate applications but complicated due to the large differences in scale and observation geometry between the satellite footprint and the independent ground based or airborne observations. Here we illustrate and demonstrate an a...

Cox, C. and Munk, W.: Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun's glitter, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 44, 838–850, 1954{a}.; Cox, C. and Munk, W.: Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter, J. Mar. Res., 13, 198–227, 1954{b}.; Davis, R.: Comparison of modeled to observed global irradiance, J. Appl. Meteorol., 35, 192–201, 1996.; de Haan, J. F., Bosma, P. B., and Hovenier, J. W.: The adding method for multiple scattering calculations ...

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Comparisons Between Sciamachy Atmospheric Co2 Retrieved Using (Fsi...

By: U. Frieß; S. Körner; P. S. Monks; M. P. Barkley; M. Heimann; R. L. Mittermeier; H. Fast

Description: EOS, Space Research Centre, Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations, retrieved from spectral measurements made in the near infrared (NIR) by the SCIAMACHY instrument, using Full Spectral Initiation Weighting Function Modified Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (FSI WFM-DOAS), are compared to ground based Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) data and to the output from a gl...

Barkley, M. P., Frie$ß$, U., and Monks, P. S.: Measuring atmospheric \chemCO_2 from space using Full Spectral Initiation (FSI) WFM-DOAS, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3517–3534, 2006.; Bovensmann, H., Burrows, J. P., Buchwitz, M., Frerick, J., Nöel, S., Rozanov, V. V., Chance, K. V., and Goede, A.: SCIAMACHY – mission objectives and measurement modes, J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 127–150, 1999.; Buchwitz, M., Rozanov, V. V., and Burrows, J. P.: A near infrared optimized DOAS method for ...

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Deposition Mode Ice Nucleation Reexamined at Temperatures Below 20...

By: X. Kong; P. Papagiannakopoulos; J. B. C. Pettersson; E. S. Thomson

Description: Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, Atmospheric Science, University of Gothenburg, 412 96, Gothenburg, Sweden. The environmental chamber of a molecular beam apparatus is used to study deposition nucleation of ice on graphite, alcohols and acetic and nitric acids at temperatures between 155 and 200 K. The critical supersaturations necessary to spontaneously nucleate water ice on six different substrate materials are observed to occur at higher supe...

Dymarska, M., Murray, B. J., Sun, L., Eastwood, M. L., Knopf, D. A., and Bertram, A. K.: Deposition ice nucleation on soot at temperatures relevant for the lower troposphere, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 111, D04204, doi:10.1029/2005JD006627, 2006.; Elbaum, M., Lipson, S., and Dash, J.: Optical study of surface melting on ice, J. Cryst. Growth, 129, 491–505, 1993.; Fletcher, N. H.: Size Effect in Heterogeneous Nucleation, J....

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Emission Rate and Chemical State Estimation by 4-dimensional Varia...

By: O. Talagrand; H. Schmidt; A. Strunk; H. Elbern

Description: Rhenish Institute for Environmental Research at the University of Cologne, Köln, Germany. This study aims to assess the potential and limits of an advanced inversion method to estimate pollutant precursor sources mainly from observations. Ozone, sulphur dioxide, and partly nitrogen oxides observations are taken to infer source strength estimates. As methodology, the four–dimensional variational data assimilation technique has been generalised and emp...

Anthes, R A., Hsie, E.-Y., and Kuo, Y.-H.: Description of the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model Version 4 (MM4), Tech. Note NCAR/TN/282+STR, National Center of Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, 1987.; Bocquet, M.: Reconstruction of an atmospheric tracer source using the principle of maximum entropy. I: Theory, Q J R Meteorol Soc., 131, 2191–2208, 2005a.; Bocquet, M.: Reconstruction of an atmospheric tracer source using the principle of maximum entropy. II: Applicati...

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Review and Uncertainty Assessment of Size-resolved Scavenging Coef...

By: X. Wang; J. Feng; M. D. Moran; L. Zhang

Description: Air Quality Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin St, Toronto, Ontario, M3H 5T4, Canada. Theoretical parameterizations for the size-resolved scavenging coefficient for atmospheric aerosol particles scavenged by snow (Λsnow) need assumptions regarding (i) snow particle–aerosol particle collection efficiency E, (ii) snow particle size distribution N(Dp), (iii) snow p...

Andronache, C., Grönholm, T., Laakso, L., Phillips, V., and Venäläinen, A.: Scavenging of ultrafine particles by rainfall at a boreal site: observations and model estimations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4739–4754, doi:10.5194/acp-6-4739-2006, 2006.; Baklanov, A.: Parameterisation of the deposition processes and radioactive decay: a review and some preliminary results by the DERMA model, DMI Scientific Report 99-4, Danish ...

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Experimentally Measured Morphology of Biomass Burning Aerosol and ...

By: A. Asa-awuku; M. Giordano; C. Espinoza

Description: Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California – Riverside, Riverside, California, USA. This study examines the morphological properties of freshly emitted and atmospherically aged aerosols from biomass burning. The impacts of particle morphology assumptions on hygroscopic predictions are examined. Chamber experiments were conducted at the UC-Riverside Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) Atmosp...

Andreae, M. O., Rosenfeld, D., Artaxo, P., Costa, A. A., Frank, G. P., Longo, K. M., and Silva-Dias, M. A. F.: Smoking rain clouds over the Amazon, Science, 303, 1337–1342, doi:10.1126/science.1092779, 2004.; Baron, P. A., Sorensen, C. M., and Brockmann. J. E.: Nonspherical particle measurements: shape factors, fractals, and fibers, in: Aerosol Measurement: Principles. Techniques, and Applications, edited by: Baron, P...

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So2 Noontime-peak Phenomenon in the North China Plain : Volume 14,...

By: L. Ran; P. Yan; W. L. Lin; X. B. Xu; W. Y. Xu; C. S. Zhao

Description: Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China. A phenomenon of frequent noontime SO2 concentration peaks was discovered in a detailed analysis of the SO2 concentrations in the North China Plain (NCP). The possible causes and their contributions are analyzed. The impacts of such a phenomenon on the sulphur cycle were studied and the implications of the phenomenon for atmospheric ...

Adame, J. A., Notario, A., Villanueva, F., and Albaladejo, J.: Application of cluster analysis to surface ozone, NO2 and SO2 daily patterns in an industrial area in Central-Southern Spain measured with a DOAS system, Sci. Total Environ., 429, 281–291, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.04.032, 2012.; Antony Chen, L. W., Doddridge, B. G., Dickerson, R. R., Chow, J. C., Mueller, P. K., Quinn, J.,...

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Mesoscale Processes for Super Heavy Rainfall of Typhoon Morakot (2...

By: C.-h. Kuo; H.-m. Hsu; Y.-f. Sheng; C.-y. Lin; Y.-a. Liou

Description: Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. Within 100 h, a record-breaking rainfall, 2855 mm, was brought to Taiwan by Typhoon Morakot in August, 2009 resulting in devastating landslides and casualties. Analyses and simulations show that under favorable large-scale situations, this unprecedented precipitation was caused first by the convergence of the southerly component of the pre-existing strong southwesterly monsoonal...

Brand, S. and Blelloch, J. W.: Changes in the characteristics of typhoons crossing the island of Taiwan, Mon. Weather Rev., 102, 708–713, 1974.; Chien F. C., Liu, Y. C., and Lee, C. S.: Heavy rainfall and southwesterly flow after the leaving of typhoon Midulle (2004) from Taiwan., J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 86, 17–41, 2008.; Chen, Y.-L. and Li, J.: Characterisitics of surface air flow and pressure patterns over the island of Taiwan during TAMEX, Mon. Weather Rev., 123, 695...

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