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The Importance of Aerosol Mixing State and Size-resolved Compositi...

By: A. C. Aiken; J. L. Jimenez; M. J. Cubison; J. Wang; D. R. Collins

Description: Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA. Aerosol microphysics, chemical composition, and CCN concentrations were measured at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City during Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) in March 2006. The aerosol size distribution and composition often showed strong diurnal variation associated with traffic emissions and aging of aerosols through coagulation and ...

Aggarwal, S. G. and Kawamura, K.: Carbonaceous and inorganic composition in long-range transported aerosols over northern Japan: Implication for aging of water-soluble organic fraction, Atmos. Environ., 43, 2532–2540, 2009.; Albrecht, B. A.: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227–1230, 1989.; Aiken, A. C., DeCarlo, P. F., Kroll, J. H., et al.: O/C and OM/OC Ratios of Primary, Secondary, and Ambient Organic Aerosols with High Resolutio...

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Urban Aerosol Size Distributions Over the Mediterranean City of Ba...

By: J. Pey; R. M. Harrison; D.C.S. Beddows; S. Rodriguez; M. Dall'Osto; A. Alastuey; X. Querol

Description: Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (ID\'Ǽ-CSIC), Barcelona, Spain. Differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) aerosol concentrations (N13–800) were collected over a one-year-period (2004) at an urban background site in Barcelona, North-Eastern Spain. Quantitative contributions to particle number concentrations of the nucleation (33–38%), Aitken (39–49%) and accumulation mode (18–22%) were estimated. We examin...

Alam, A., Shi, J. P., and Harrison, R. M.: Observations of new particle formation in urban air, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4093–4107, 2003.; Amato, F., Pandolfi, M., Escrig, A., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Pey, J., Perez, N., and Hopke, P. K.: Quantifying road dust resuspension in urban environment by multilinear engine: a comparison with PMF2, Atmos. Environ., 43, 2770–2780, 2009.; Atkinson, R. W., Fuller, G. W., Anderson, H. R., Harrison, R. M., and Armstrong B.: Urban ambie...

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Emissions of Organic Aerosol Mass, Black Carbon, Particle Number, ...

By: T. W. Adam; M. Elsasser; U. Baltensperger; A. S. H. Prevot; B. Giechaskiel; M. Clairotte; R. Chirico; M. Sklorz; P. F. Decarlo; R. Zimmermann; G. Martini; C. Astorga; M. F. Heringa; T. Streibel; U. Manfredi

Description: Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland. A sampling campaign with seven different types of vehicles was conducted in 2009 at the vehicle test facilities of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). The vehicles chosen were representative of some categories circulating in Europe and were fueled either with standard gasoline or diesel and some with blends of rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel. The a...

Abdul-Khalek, I., Kittelson, D., and Brear, F.,: The Influence of Dilution Conditions on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distribution Measurements, SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-1142, doi:10.4271/1999-01-1142, 1999.; Adam, T., Farfaletti, A., Montero, L., Martini, G., Manfredi, U., Larsen, B., Santi, G. D., Krasenbrink, A., and Astorga, C.: Chemical characterization of emissions from modern two-stroke mopeds complying with le...

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Direct Observation of Two Dimensional Trace Gas Distributions with...

By: S. P. Broccardo; K. E. Ross; D. Walter; K.-p. Heue; S. Beirle; S. J. Piketh; T. Wagner; U. Platt

Description: Institut für Umweltphysik (IUP), Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. In many investigations of tropospheric chemistry information about the two dimensional distribution of trace gases on a small scale (e.g. tens to hundreds of metres) is highly desirable. An airborne instrument based on imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy has been built to map the two dimensional distribution of a series of relevant trace gases including NO...

Bobrowski, N., von Glasow, R., Aiuppa, A., Inguaggiato, S., Louban, I., Ibrahim, O. W., and Platt, U.: Reactive Halogen Chemistry in Volcanic Plumes, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D06311, doi:10.1029/2006JD007206, 2007.; Beirle, S., Platt, U., von Glasow, R., Wenig, M., and Wagner, T.: Estimate of nitrogen oxide emission from shipping by satellite remote sensing, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18102, doi:10.1029/2004GL020312, 2004.; Beirle, S., Platt, U., and Wagner, T.: Potential o...

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The Influence of Traffic and Wood Combustion on the Stable Isotopi...

By: M. Saurer; J. Sandradewi; A. S. H. Prévôt; U. Baltensperger; J. Dommen; R. T. W. Siegwolf

Description: Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland. Carbon monoxide in the atmosphere is originating from various combustion and oxidation processes. Recently, the proportion of CO resulting from the combustion of wood for domestic heating may have increased due to political measures promoting this renewable energy source. Here, we used the stable isotope composition of CO (Δ13C and Δ18O) for the characterization of different C...

Steinbacher, M., Zellweger, C., Schwarzenbach, B., Bugmann, S., Buchmann, B., Ordonez, C., Prévôt, A. S. H., and Hueglin, C.: Nitrogen oxide measurements at rural sites in Switzerland: Bias of conventional measurement techniques, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D11307, doi:10.1029/2006JD007971, 2007.; Stevens, C. M., Walling, D., Venters, A., Ross, L. E., Engelkem, A, and Krout, L.: Isotopic composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide, Earth. Planet. Sc. Lett., 16, 147–165, 1972.;...

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Lc-ms Analysis of Aerosol Particles from the Oxidation of Α-pinene...

By: N. R. Jensen; R. Van Dingenen; R. Winterhalter; B. R. Larsen; J. Hjorth

Description: European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, 21020 Ispra (VA), Italy. The time resolved chemical composition of aerosol particles, formed by the oxidation of alpha-pinene has been investigated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using negative and positive ionisation methods (ESI(-) and APCI(+)). The experiments were performed at the EUPHORE facility in Valencia (Spain) under various exp...

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Functionalization and Fragmentation During Ambient Organic Aerosol...

By: N. M. Donahue; M. Dall'Osto; C. Fountoukis; A. Kiendler-scharr; S. N. Pandis; B. N. Murphy; C. O'Dowd

Description: Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA. Multigenerational oxidation chemistry of atmospheric organic compounds and its effects on aerosol loadings and chemical composition is investigated by implementing the Two-Dimensional Volatility Basis Set (2-D-VBS) in a Lagrangian host chemical transport model. Three model formulations were chosen to explore the complex interactions betwe...

Aiken, A. C., Decarlo, P. F., Kroll, J. H., Worsnop, D. R., Huffman, J. A., Docherty, K. S., Ulbrich, I. M., Mohr, C., Kimmel, J. R., Sueper, D., Sun, Y., Zhang, Q., Trimborn, A., Northway, M., Ziemann, P. J., Canagaratna, M. R., Onasch, T. B., Alfarra, M. R., Prevot, A. S. H., Dommen, J., Duplissy, J., Metzger, A., Baltensperger, U., and Jimenez, J. L.: O/C and OM/OC ratios of primary, secondary, and ambient organic aerosols with high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol m...

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Impact of Updated Traffic Emissions on Hono Mixing Ratios Simulate...

By: S. Alvarez; X. Li; Y. Choi; B. H. Czader; B. Lefer

Description: Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, USA. Recent measurements in Houston show that HONO traffic emissions are 1.7% of NOx emissions which is about twice the previously estimated value of 0.8% based on tunnel measurements in 2001. The 0.8% value is widely used to estimate mobile emissions of HONO for air quality modeling applications. This study applies the newly estimated HONO/NOx ratio in th...

Amedro, D., Parker, A. E., Schoemaecker, C., and Fittschen, C.: Direct observation of OH radicals after 565 nm multi-photon exAmedro, D., Parker, A. E., Schoemaecker, C., and Fittschen, C.: Direct observation of OH radicals after 565 nm multi-photon excitation of NO2 in the presence of H2O, Chem. Phys. Lett., 513, 12–16, doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2011.07.062, 2011.; Byun, D. and Schere, K. L.: Re...

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The Influence of Polar Vortex Ozone Depletion on NH Mid-latitude O...

By: B. M. Knudsen; S. B. Andersen

Description: Danish Meteorological Institute, Research and Development Department, Lyngbyvej 100, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. Reverse domain-filling trajectory calculations have been performed for the years 1993, 1995, 1996, 1997, and 2000 to calculate the spreading of ozone depleted air from the polar vortex to midlatitudes in spring. We find that for these years with massive Arctic ozone depletion the zonal mean total ozone column at midlatitudes is reduced with be...

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Atmospheric Measurements of Ratios Between Co2 and Co-emitted Spec...

By: J. Sciare; I. Xueref-remy; F. Chevallier; L. Ammoura; B. Bonsang; O. Perrussel; V. Gros; A. Baudic; J.-e. Petit; N. Bonnaire

Description: LSCE, Unité mixte CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, UMR 8212, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette, France. Measurements of CO2, CO, NOx and selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) mole fractions were performed continuously during a 10-day period in the Guy Môquet tunnel in Thiais, a peri-urban area about 15 km south of the centre of Paris, between 28 September and 8 October 2012. This data set is used here to identify the characteristics of traffic-emitted CO

ADEME: Evolution du Marché, Caractéristiques Environnementales et Techniques, Véhicules Particuliers Neufs Vendus en France en 2013, available at: http://www2.ademe.fr/servlet/getDoc?id=52819&ref=&p1=111 (last access: April 2014), 2013.; Airparif: Bilan des Émissions de Polluants Atmosphériques et de Gaz à Effet de Serre en \^Ile- de-France pour l'Année 2010 et Historique 2000/05: Méthodologie et résult...

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Top-down Estimates of Biomass Burning Emissions of Black Carbon in...

By: K.-n. Liou; Q. B. Li; D. Chen; L. Zhang; Y. H. Mao; W.-m. Hao

Description: Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. We estimate biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions of black carbon (BC) in the western US for May–October 2006 by inverting surface BC concentrations from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) network using a global chemical transport model. We first use active fire counts from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectror...

Allen, D. J., Rood, R. B., Thompson, A. M., and Hudson, R. D.: Three-dimensional ranon 222 calculations using assimilated metrological data and a convective mixing algorithm, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 6871–6881, 1996a.; Allen, D. J., Kasibhatla, P., Thompson, A. M., Rood, R. B., Doddridge, B. G., Pickering, K. E., Hudson, R. D., and Lin, S.-J.: Transport-induced interannual variability of carbon monoxide determined using a chemistry and transport model, J. Geophys. Res., 10...

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Understanding the Kinetics of the Clo Dimer Cycle : Volume 6, Issu...

By: T. Canty; J.-u. Grooß; H. Keller-rudek; G. K. Moortgat; R. Müller; R. J. Salawitch; M. Von Hobe; F. Stroh

Description: Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute for Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere (ICG-I), Jülich, Germany. Among the major factors controlling ozone loss in the polar winter is the kinetics of the ClO dimer catalytic cycle. The most important issues are the thermal equilibrium between ClO and Cl2O2, the rate of Cl2O2 formation, and the Cl2O2 photolysis rate. All these issues have been ...

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Heterogeneous Conversion of No2 and No on Hno3 Treated Soot Surfac...

By: P. Wiesen; J. Kleffmann

Description: Physikalische Chemie/FB C, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany. In the present study, the heterogeneous conversion of nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was studied at atmospheric humidity levels on flame soot surfaces, which were treated with gaseous nitric acid (HNO3). In addition, the heterogeneous reaction of HNO3 on soot was investigated at atmospheric humidity.

For th...

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Sciamachy Formaldehyde Observations: Constraint for Isoprene Emiss...

By: F. Wittrock; M. Beekmann; J. Burrows; M. Camredon; G. Dufour; A. Richter

Description: Laboratoire Inter-universitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques (LISA), UMR7583, Universités Paris 12 et Paris 7, CNRS, Créteil, France. Formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important intermediate compound in the degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the troposphere. Sources of HCHO are largely dominated by its secondary production from VOC oxidation, methane and isoprene being the main precursors in unpolluted areas. As a result of the moderate lifetime ...

Abbot, D. S., Palmer, P. I., Martin, R. V., Chance, K., Jacob, D. J., and Guenther, A.: Seasonal and interannual variability of North American isoprene emissions as determined by formaldehyde column measurements from space, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(17), 1886, doi:10.1029/2003GL017336, 2003.; Atkinson, R.: Gas-phase tropospheric chemistry of organic compounds, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data Monogr., 2, 13–46, 1994.; Aumont, B., Szopa, S., and Madronich, S.: Modelling the evoluti...

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A Comparison of Chemical Mechanisms Using Tagged Ozone Production ...

By: T. M. Butler; J. Coates

Description: Insititute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, Potsdam, Germany. Ground-level ozone is a secondary pollutant produced photochemically from reactions of NOx with peroxy radicals produced during VOC degradation. Chemical transport models use simplified representations of this complex gas-phase chemistry to predict O3 levels and inform emission control strategies. Accurate representation of O3 production chemis...

Atkinson, R.: Atmospheric chemistry of VOCs and NOx, Atmos. Environ., 34, 2063–2101, 2000.; Baker, A. K., Beyersdorf, A. J., Doezema, L. A., Katzenstein, A., Meinardi, S., Simpson, I. J., Blake, D. R., and Rowland, F. S.: Measurements of nonmethane hydrocarbons in 28 United States cities, Atmos. Environ., 42, 170–182, 2008.; Bloss, C., Wagner, V., Jenkin, M. E., Volkamer, R., Bloss, W. J., Lee, J. D., Heard, D. E., Wirtz, K., Martin-Reviejo, M., Rea, G....

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Consistent Circulation Differences in the Southern Hemisphere Caus...

By: S. Kellmann; J. A. Pyle; A. T. Archibald; P. Braesicke; P. Telford; G. Stiller; X. Yang; J. Keeble; N. L. Abraham

Description: NCAS/University of Cambridge, Chemistry Department, Cambridge, UK. We report results from two pairs of chemistry-climate model simulations using the same climate model but different chemical perturbations. In each pair of experiments an ozone change was triggered by a simple change in the chemistry. One pair of model experiments looked at the impact of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) and the other pair at the impact of short lived halogenated species ...

Andrews, D. G., Holton, J. R., and Leovy, C. B.: Middle Atmosphere Dynamics, Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1987.; Birner, T. and Bönisch, H.: Residual circulation trajectories and transit times into the extratropical lowermost stratosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 817–827, doi:10.5194/acp-11-817-2011, 2011.; Bodeker, G. E., Shiona, H., and Eskes, H.: Indicators of Antarctic ozone depletion, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2603–...

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Development and Evaluation of the Aerosol Dynamic and Gas Phase Ch...

By: M. Kulmala; P. Roldin; A. Arneth; E. Swietlicki; G. Schurgers; M. Boy; K. E. J. Lehtinen

Description: Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University, 221 00, Lund, Sweden. The aim of this work was to develop a model ideally suited for detailed studies on aerosol dynamics, gas and particle phase chemistry within urban plumes, from local scale (1×1 km2) to regional or global scale. This article describes and evaluates the trajectory model for Aerosol Dynamics, gas and particle phase CHEMistry and radiative transfer (ADCHEM), which has been develo...

Arneth, A., Niinemets, Ü., Pressley, S., Bäck, J., Hari, P., Karl, T., Noe, S., Prentice, I. C., Serça, D., Hickler, T., Wolf, A., and Smith, B.: Process-based estimates of terrestrial ecosystem isoprene emissions: incorporating the effects of a direct CO2-isoprene interaction, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 31–53, doi:10.5194/acp-7-31-2007, 2007.; Arneth, A., Schurgers, G, Hickler, T, and Miller, P. A.: Effects of species composition, land surface cover, CO2 concentr...

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Greenhouse Gas Network Design Using Backward Lagrangian Particle D...

By: G. Roff; T. Ziehn; R. M. Law; P. J. Rayner; A. Nickless; P. Fraser

Description: Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, VIC 3195, Australia. This paper describes the generation of optimal atmospheric measurement networks for determining carbon dioxide fluxes over Australia using inverse methods. A Lagrangian particle dispersion model is used in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to calculate the relationship between weekly surface fluxes a...

Enting, I. G.: Inverse Problems in Atmospheric Constituent Transport, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 2002.; Asefi-Najafabady, S., Rayner, P. J., Gurney, K. R., McRobert, A., Song, Y., Coltin, K., Elvidge, C., and Baugh, K.: A new global gridded dataset of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion: methodology, evaluation and analysis, J. Geophys. Res., in review, 2014.; Chevallier, F., Ciais, P., Conway, T. J., Aalto, T., Anderson, B. E., Bousquet, P., Brunk...

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Particle and Gaseous Emissions from Individual Diesel and Cng Buse...

By: H. Fallgren; M. Jerksjö; J. Westerlund; Å. M. Hallquist; Å. Sjödin

Description: IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Göteborg, Sweden. In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and anal...

Ayala, A., Kado, N. Y., Okamoto, R. A., Holmen, B. A., Kuzmicky, P. A., Kobayashi, R., and Stiglitz, K. E.: Diesel and cng heavy-duty transit bus emissions over multiple driving schedules: Regulated pollutants and project overwiew, SAE Technical Paper Series, 2002-01-1722, 2002.; Ban-Weiss, G. A., Lunden, M. M., Kirchstetter, T. W., and Harley, R. A.: Size-resolved particle number and volume emission factors for on-road gasoline and diesel motor vehicles, J. Aerosol. Sci...

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Total Ozone Retrieval from Gome Uv Spectral Data Using the Weighti...

By: M. Weber; J. P. Burrows; L. N. Lamsal; M. Buchwitz; M. Coldewey-egbers; R. De Beek

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. A new algorithm approach called Weighting Function Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (WFDOAS) is presented which has been developed to retrieve total ozone columns from nadir observations of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment. By fitting the vertically integrated ozone weighting function rather than ozone cross-section to the sun-normalized radiances, a direct ret...

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