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Law and Economics


The economic analysis of law (also known as law and economics) is an analysis of law applying methods of economics. Economic concepts are used to explain the effects of laws, to assess which legal rules are economically efficient, and to predict which legal rules will be promulgated.

 
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Climate Change and Stream Temperature Projections in the Columbia ...

By: J. H. Knouft; B. L. Barnhart; I. T. Stewart; D. L. Ficklin; G. W. Whittaker; E. P. Maurer; S. L. Letsinger

Description: Department of Geography, Indiana University, 701 E. Kirkwood Ave., Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. Water temperature is a primary physical factor regulating the persistence and distribution of aquatic taxa. Considering projected increases in air temperature and changes in precipitation in the coming century, accurate assessment of suitable thermal habitats in freshwater systems is critical for predicting aquatic species' responses to changes in climate and f...

Abbaspour, K. C., Yang, J., Maximov, I., Siber, R., Bogner, K., Mieleitner, J., Zobrist, J., and Srinivasan, R.: Modelling hydrology and water quality in the pre-alpine/alpine Thur watershed using SWAT, J. Hydrol., 333, 413–430, 2007.; Al-Chokhachy, R., Alder, J., Hostetler, S., Gresswell, R., and Shepard, B.: Thermal controls of yellowstone cutthroat trout and invasive fishes under climate change, Global Change Biol., 19, 3069–3081, 2013.; Anderson, M. P.: Heat as a gro...

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Climate Change and Stream Temperature Projections in the Columbia ...

By: J. H. Knouft; B. L. Barnhart; I. T. Stewart; D. L. Ficklin; G. W. Whittaker; E. P. Maurer; S. L. Letsinger

Description: Department of Geography, Indiana University, 701 E. Kirkwood Ave., Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. Water temperature is a primary physical factor regulating the persistence and distribution of aquatic taxa. Considering projected increases in air temperature and changes in precipitation in the coming century, accurate assessment of suitable thermal habitats in freshwater systems is critical for predicting aquatic species' responses to changes in climate and f...

Abbaspour, K. C., Yang, J., Maximov, I., Siber, R., Bogner, K., Mieleitner, J., Zobrist, J., and Srinivasan, R.: Modelling hydrology and water quality in the pre-alpine/alpine Thur watershed using SWAT, J. Hydrol., 333, 413–430, 2007.; Al-Chokhachy, R., Alder, J., Hostetler, S., Gresswell, R., and Shepard, B.: Thermal controls of yellowstone cutthroat trout and invasive fishes under climate change, Global Change Biol., 19, 3069–3081, 2013.; Anderson, M. P.: Heat as a gro...

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A Continuous Rainfall Model Based on Vine Copulas : Volume 19, Iss...

By: B. De Baets; N. E. C. Verhoest; S. Vandenberghe; H. Vernieuwe

Description: KERMIT, Department of Mathematical Modelling, Statistics and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Copulas have already proven their flexibility in rainfall modelling. Yet, their use is generally restricted to the description of bivariate dependence. Recently, vine copulas have been introduced, allowing multi-dimensional dependence structures to be described on the basis of a stage by stage mixing of 2-dimensional copu...

Aas, K. and Berg, D.: Models for construction of multivariate dependence - a comparison study, Eur. J. Financ., 15, 639–659, 2009.; Aas, K., Czado, C., Frigessi, A., and Bakken, H.: Pair-copula constructions of multiple dependence, Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, 44, 182–198, 2009.; Bedford, T. and Cooke, R.: Probability density decomposition for conditionally dependent random variables modeled by vines, Ann. Math. Artif. Intel., 32, 245–268, 2001.; Bedford, T. and...

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Climate and Hydrological Variability: the Catchment Filtering Role...

By: I. Andrés-doménech; R. García-bartual; A. Montanari; J. B. Marco

Description: Instituto Universitario de Investigación de Ingeniería del Agua y Medio Ambiente, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain. Measuring the impact of climate change on flood frequency is a complex and controversial task. Identifying hydrological changes is difficult given the factors, other than climate variability, which lead to significant variations in runoff series. The catchment filtering role is often overlooked ...

Allamano, P., Claps, P., and Laio, F.: Global warming increases flood risk in mountainous areas, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L24404, doi:10.1029/2009GL041395, 2009.; Andrés-Doménech, I., Montanari, A., and Marco, J. B.: Stochastic rainfall analysis for storm tank performance evaluation, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 1221–1232, doi:10.5194/hess-14-1221-2010, 2010.; Andr...

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Derived Flood Frequency Analysis Using Different Model Calibration...

By: I. Radtke; U. Haberlandt

Description: Institute of Water Resources Management, Hydrology and Agricultural Hydraulic Engineering, Leibniz University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany. Derived flood frequency analysis allows to estimate design floods with hydrological modelling for poorly observed basins considering change and taking into account flood protection measures. There are several possible choices about precipitation input, discharge output and consequently regarding the calibration...

Aronica, G. T. and Candela, A.: Derivation of flood frequency curves in poorly gauged Mediterranean catchments using a simple stochastic hydrological rainfall–runoff model, J. Hydrol., 347, 132–142, 2007.; Bárdossy, A.: Generating precipitation time series using simulated annealing, Water Resour. Res., 34, 1737–1744, 1998.; Bárdossy, A. and Das, T.: Influence of rainfall observation network on model calibration and application, HESS, 12, 77–89, 2008.; Bartels, H., Dietze...

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Climate and Hydrological Variability: the Catchment Filtering Role...

By: A. Montanari; J. B. Marco; R. García-bartual; I. Andrés-doménech

Description: Instituto Universitario de Investigación de Ingeniería del Agua y Medio Ambiente, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain. Measuring the impact of climate change on flood frequency is a complex and controversial task. Identifying hydrological changes is difficult given the factors, other than climate variability, which lead to significant variations in runoff series. The catchment filtering role is often...

Allamano, P., Claps, P., and Laio, F.: Global warming increases flood risk in mountainous areas, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L24404, doi:10.1029/2009GL041395, 2009.; Andrés-Doménech, I., Montanari, A., and Marco, J. B.: Stochastic rainfall analysis for storm tank performance evaluation, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 1221–1232, doi:10.5194/hess-14-1221-2010, 2010.; Andr...

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Multiobjective Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization of a Distribu...

By: Y. Chen; F. Castelli; J. Yang

Description: State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xinjiang, 830011, China. Calibration of distributed hydrologic models usually involves how to deal with the large number of distributed parameters and optimization problems with multiple but often conflicting objectives which arise in a natural fashion. This study presents a multiobjective sensitivity and optimization approach t...

Bekele, E. G. and Nicklow, J. W.: Multi-objective automatic calibration of SWAT using NSGA-II, J. Hydrol., 341, 165–176, 2007; Beven, K. and Binley, A.: The future of distributed models – model calibration and uncertainty prediction, Hydrol. Process., 6, 279–298, 1992.; Campolongo, F., Cariboni, J., and Saltelli, A.: An effective screening design for sensitivity analysis of large models, Environ. Modell. Softw., 22, 1509–1518, 2007.; Blasco, X., Herrero, J. M., Sanchis, ...

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Climate Change and Stream Temperature Projections in the Columbia ...

By: J. H. Knouft; B. L. Barnhart; I. T. Stewart; S. L. Letsinger; G. W. Whittaker; E. P. Maurer; D. L. Ficklin

Description: Department of Geography, Indiana University, 701 E. Kirkwood Ave., Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. Water temperature is a primary physical factor regulating the persistence and distribution of aquatic taxa. Considering projected increases in temperature and changes in precipitation in the coming century, accurate assessment of suitable thermal habitat in freshwater systems is critical for predicting aquatic species responses to changes in climate and f...

Abbaspour, K. C., Yang, J., Maximov, I., Siber, R., Bogner, K., Mieleitner, J., Zobrist, J., and Srinivasan, R.: Modelling hydrology and water quality in the pre-alpine/alpine Thur watershed using SWAT, J. Hydrol., 333, 413–430, 2007.; Anderson, M. P.: Heat as a ground water tracer, Ground Water, 43, 951–968, 2005.; Al-Chokhachy, R., Alder, J., Hostetler, S., Gresswell, R., and Shepard, B.: Thermal controls of yellowstone cutthroat trout and invasive fishes under climate...

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A Continuous Rainfall Model Based on Vine Copulas : Volume 12, Iss...

By: N. E. C. Verhoest; B. De Baets; S. Vandenberghe; H. Vernieuwe

Description: Department of Mathematical Modelling, Statistics and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Copulas have already proven their flexibility in rainfall modelling. Yet, their use is generally restricted to the description of bivariate dependence. Recently, vine copulas have been introduced, allowing multi-dimensional dependence structures to be described on the basis of a stage by stage mixing of two-dimensional copulas....

Aas, K. and Berg, D.: Models for construction of multivariate dependence – a comparison study, Eur. J. Financ., 15, 639–659, 2009.; Aas, K., Czado, C., Frigessi, A., and Bakken, H.: Pair-copula constructions of multiple dependence, Insur. Math. Econ., 44, 182–198, 2009.; Bedford, T. and Cooke, R.: Probability density decomposition for conditionally dependent random variables modeled by vines, Ann. Math. Artif. Intel., 32, 245–268, 2001.; Bedford, T. and Cooke, R.: Vines ...

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A Rainfall Design Method for Spatial Flood Risk Assessment: Consid...

By: X. Jiang; H. Tatano

Description: Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan. Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals w...

Aas, K. and Berg, D.: Models for construction of multivariate dependence – a comparison study, Eur. J. Financ., 15, 639–659, 2009.; Aas, K., Czado, C., and Frigessi, A.: Pair-copula constructions of multiple dependence, Insur. Math. Econ., 44, 182–198, 2009.; Bouyé, E., Durrleman, V., Nikeghbali, A., Riboulet, G., and Roncalli, T.: Copulas for finance – a reading guide and some applications, SSRN Working Paper Series, available at: SSRN 1032533, 2000.; Choro\'s, B., Ibra...

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Investigation of Hydrological Time Series Using Copulas for Detect...

By: J. Cullmann; G. S. S. Pegram; A. Bárdossy; T. Sugimoto

Description: Institute for Modelling Hydraulic and Environmental Systems, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany. Global climate change can have impacts on characteristics of rainfall-runoff events and subsequently on the hydrological regime. Meanwhile, the catchment itself changes due to anthropogenic influences. In this context, it can be meaningful to detect the temporal changes of catchments independent from climate change by investigating existing long ter...

Box, G. E. P. and Jenkins, G. M.: Time series analysis, control, and forecasting, revised ed., Holden-Day, San Francisco, USA, 1976.; Bárdossy, A.: Copula-based geostatistical models for groundwater quality parameters, Water Resour. Res., 42, W11416, doi:10.1029/2005WR004754, 2006.; Bárdossy, A. and Li, J.: Geostatistical interpolation using copulas, Water Resour. Res., 44, W07412,

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A Space-time Hybrid Hourly Rainfall Model for Derived Flood Freque...

By: I. Buchwald; A.-d. Ebner Von Eschenbach; U. Haberlandt

Description: Institute of Water Resources Management, Hydrology and Agricultural Hydraulic Engineering, Leibniz University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany. For derived flood frequency analysis based on hydrological modelling long continuous precipitation time series with high temporal resolution are needed. Often, the observation network with recording rainfall gauges is poor, so stochastic precipitation synthesis is a good alternative. Here, a hybrid two step procedu...

Cunderlik, J. M. and Simonovic, S. P.: Hydrological extremes in a southwestern Ontario river basin under future climate conditions, Hydrol. Sci. J., 50, 631–654, 2005.; Cowpertwait, P. S. P.: A spatial-temporal point process model of rainfall for the Thames catchment, UK, J. Hydrol., 330, 586–595, 2006.; Aarts, E. and Korst, J.: Simulated Annealing and Boltzmann Machines, John Wiley, New York, USA, 1989.; Acreman, M. C.: Simple Stochastic Model of Hourly Rainfall for Far...

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Parameter Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis in Sediment Flux Ca...

By: M. Delmas; O. Cerdan; J.-m. Mouchel; B. Cheviron

Description: Université Paris VI-Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 7619 Sisyphe, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France. This paper examines uncertainties in the calculation of annual sediment budgets at the outlet of rivers. Emphasis is put on the sensitivity of power-law rating curves to degradations of the available discharge-concentration data. The main purpose is to determine how predictions arising from usual or modified power laws resist to th...

Asselmann, N. E. M.: Fitting and interpretation of sediment rating curves, J. Hydrol., 234, 228–248, 2000.; Clauset, A., Shalizi, C. R., and Newman, M. E. J.: Power-law distribution in empirical data, Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. Rev., 51(4), 661–703, 2009.; Coynel, A., Schäfer, J., Hurtrez, J. E., Dumas, J., Etcheber, H., and Blanc, G.: Sampling frequency and accuracy of SPM flux estimates in two contrasted drainage basins, Sci. Total Environ., 330, 233–247, 2004.; Delmas, M.,...

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Copula-based Downscaling of Spatial Rainfall: a Proof of Concept :...

By: N. E. C. Verhoest; S. Vandenberghe; B. De Baets; M. J. Van Den Berg

Description: Laboratory of Hydrology and Water Management, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Fine-scale rainfall data is important for many hydrological applications. However, often the only data available is at a coarse scale. To bridge this gap in resolution, stochastic disaggregation methods can be used. Such methods generally assume that the distribution of the field is stationary, i.e. the distribution for the entire (fine...

De Jongh, I. L. M., Verhoest, N. E. C., and De Troch, F. P.: Analysis of a 105-year time series of preceipitation observed at Uccle, Belgium, Int. J. Climatol., 26, 2023–2039, doi:10.1002/joc, 2006.; Allcroft, D. and Glasbey, C.: A latent Gaussian Markov random-field model for spatiotemporal rainfall disaggregation, J. Roy. Stat. Soc. C-App., 52, 487–498, doi:10.1111/1467-9876.004...

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Simplifying a Hydrological Ensemble Prediction System with a Backw...

By: C. Gagné; F. Anctil; D. Brochero

Description: Chaire de recherche EDS en prévisions et actions hydrologiques, Department of Civil and Water Engineering, Université Laval, Québec (Québec), G1V 0A6 Canada. An uncertainty cascade model applied to stream flow forecasting seeks to evaluate the different sources of uncertainty of the complex rainfall-runoff process. The current trend focuses on the combination of Meteorological Ensemble Prediction Systems (MEPS) and hydrological model(s). Howe...

Alpaydin, E.: Introduction to Machine Learning. Adaptive Computation and Machine Learning, The MIT Press, 2 edn., Cambridge, 2010.; Bishop, C. M.: Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning (Information Science and Statistics), Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. Secaucus, NJ, USA, 2006.; Beven, K. and Binley, A.: The future of distributed models: model calibration and uncertainty prediction, Hydrol. Process., 6, 279–298, doi:10....

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Copula-based Statistical Refinement of Precipitation in Rcm Simula...

By: S. Vogl; W. Qiu; H. R. Knoche; H. Kunstmann; P. Laux

Description: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK-IFU), Kreuzeckbahnstrasse 19, 82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. This paper presents a new Copula-based method for further downscaling regional climate simulations. It is developed, applied and evaluated for selected stations in the alpine region of Germany. Apart from the common way to use Copulas to model the extreme values, a strategy is proposed which all...

AghaKouchak, A., Bárdossy, A., and Habib, H.: Copula-based uncertainty modeling: Application to multi-sensor precipitation estimates, Hydrol. Process., 24(15), 2111–2124, doi:10.1002/hyp.7632, 2010a.; AghaKouchak, A., Bárdossy, A., and Habib, H.: Conditional simulation of remotely sensed rainfall data using a non-gaussian v-transformed copula, Adv. Water Resour., 33(6), 624–634,

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Gains from Modelling Dependence of Rainfall Variables Into a Stoch...

By: P. Cantet; P. Arnaud

Description: IRSTEA, 3275 Route de Cézanne, CS 40061, 13182 Aix en Provence, France. Since the last decade, copulas have become more and more widespread in the construction of hydrological models. Unlike the multivariate statistics which are traditionally used, this tool enables scientists to model different dependence structures without drawbacks. The authors propose to apply copulas to improve the performance of an existing model. The hourly rainfall stoc...

Arnaud, P. and Lavabre, J.: Using a stochastic model for generating hourly hyetographs to study extreme rainfalls, Hydrolog. Sci. J., 44, 433–446, 1999.; Adams, B. and Papa, F.: Urban Stormwater Management Planning with Analytical Probabilistic Models, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000.; Arnaud, P.: Mod{è}le de pr{é}determination de crues bas{é} sur la simulation stochastique des pluies horaires, Ph.D. thesis, Universit{é} Montpellier II, Montpellier, 1997.; Arnaud, P. a...

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An Elusive Search for Regional Flood Frequency Estimates in the Ri...

By: S. A. Moges; F. M. Mutua; P. Willems; P. Nyeko-ogiramoi

Description: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Hydraulics Section, Kasteelpark Arenberg 40, 3001 Leuven, Belgium. Estimation of peak flow quantiles in ungauged catchments is a challenge often faced by water professionals in many parts of the world. Approaches to address such problem exist but widely used technique such as flood frequency regionalization is often not subjected to performance evaluation. In this study we used the jack-knifing principle to assess the perf...

Aldenderfer, M. S. and Blashfield R. K.: Cluster analysis, Beverly Hills, Sage Press, CA, 1984.; Abdo, G., Sonbol, M., and Willems, P.: Flood Frequency Analysis of the Eastern Nile Rivers, International Conference of UNESCO Flanders FIT FRIEND/Nile Project – Towards a better cooperation, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, 12–14 November 2005.; Acreman, M. C. and Sinclair, C. D.: Classification of drainage basin according to their physical characteristics: an application for flood f...

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Copula-based Assimilation of Radar and Gauge Information to Derive...

By: W. Qiu; P. Laux; G. Mao; H. Kunstmann; S. Vogl

Description: University of Augsburg, Institute for Geography, Regional Climate and Hydrology, 86135 Augsburg, Germany. This study addresses the problem of combining radar information and gauge measurements. Gauge measurements are the best available source of absolute rainfall intensity albeit their spatial availability is limited. Precipitation information obtained by radar mimics well the spatial patterns but is biased for their absolute values. In this study Copu...

AghaKouchak, A., Bárdossy, A., and Habib, H.: Copula-based uncertainty modeling: Application to multi-sensor precipitation estimates, Hydrol. Process., 24, 2111–2124, doi:10.1002/hyp.7632, 2010a.; AghaKouchak, A., Habib, E., and Bárdossy, A.: Modeling radar rainfall estimation uncertainties: random error model, J. Hydrol. Eng., 15, 265–275, 2010c.; AghaKouchak, A., Bárdossy, A., and Habib, H.: Conditional simulation of remot...

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Combining Aster Multispectral Imagery Analysis and Support Vector ...

By: M. Scholze; L. Boschetti; W. Knorr; G. P. Petropoulos; G. Karantounias

Description: University of Bristol, Department of Earth Sciences, Wills Memorial Building, Queens Road, BS8 1RJ, Bristol, UK. Remote sensing is increasingly being used as a cost-effective and practical solution for the rapid evaluation of impacts from wildland fires. The present study investigates the use of the support vector machine (SVM) classification method with multispectral data from the Advanced Spectral Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) for obtainin...

Abrams, M. and Hook, S.: ASTER User Handbook, Jet Propulsion Laboratory & EROS data centre, 135 pp., available at: http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/content/03_data/04_Documents/aster_user_guide_v2.pdf(last access: 14 April 2009), 1999.; Barbosa, P., Kucera, J., Strobi, P., Vogt, P., Camia A., and San-Miguel, J.: European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) – rapid damage assessme...

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