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Seasonal Changes in the Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Profile Over the Remote Southern Hemisphere Evaluated Using Multi-model Simulations and Aircraft Observations : Volume 14, Issue 20 (03/11/2014)

By Fisher, J. A.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003980131
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 48
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Seasonal Changes in the Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Profile Over the Remote Southern Hemisphere Evaluated Using Multi-model Simulations and Aircraft Observations : Volume 14, Issue 20 (03/11/2014)  
Author: Fisher, J. A.
Volume: Vol. 14, Issue 20
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


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Langenfelds, R. L., Wilson, S. R., Zeng, G., Emmons, L. K., Fisher, J. A., Williams, J. E.,...Steele, L. P. (2014). Seasonal Changes in the Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Profile Over the Remote Southern Hemisphere Evaluated Using Multi-model Simulations and Aircraft Observations : Volume 14, Issue 20 (03/11/2014). Retrieved from

Description: University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. We use aircraft observations from the 1991–2000 Cape Grim Overflight Program and the 2009–2011 HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO), together with output from four chemical transport and chemistry-climate models, to better understand the vertical distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) in the remote Southern Hemisphere. Observed CO vertical gradients at Cape Grim vary from 1.6 ppbv km−1 in austral autumn to 2.2 ppbv km−1 in austral spring. CO vertical profiles from Cape Grim are remarkably consistent with those observed over the southern mid-latitudes Pacific during HIPPO, despite major differences in time periods, flight locations, and sampling strategies between the two datasets. Using multi-model simulations from the Southern Hemisphere Model Intercomparison Project (SHMIP), we find that observed CO vertical gradients in austral winter-spring are well-represented in models and can be attributed to primary CO emissions from biomass burning. In austral summer-autumn, inter-model variability in simulated gradients is much larger, and two of the four SHMIP models significantly underestimate the Cape Grim observations. Sensitivity simulations show that CO vertical gradients at this time of year are driven by long-range transport of secondary CO of biogenic origin, implying a large sensitivity of the remote Southern Hemisphere troposphere to biogenic emissions and chemistry. Inter-model variability in summer-autumn gradients can be explained by differences in both the chemical mechanisms that drive secondary production of CO from biogenic sources and the vertical transport that redistributes this CO throughout the Southern Hemisphere. This suggests that the CO vertical gradient in the remote Southern Hemisphere provides a sensitive test of the chemistry and transport processes that define the chemical state of the background atmosphere.

Seasonal changes in the tropospheric carbon monoxide profile over the remote Southern Hemisphere evaluated using multi-model simulations and aircraft observations

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