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What Do 14Co Measurements Tell US About Oh? : Volume 7, Issue 4 (19/07/2007)

By Krol, M. C.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003993268
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 34
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: What Do 14Co Measurements Tell US About Oh? : Volume 7, Issue 4 (19/07/2007)  
Author: Krol, M. C.
Volume: Vol. 7, Issue 4
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2007
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Jöckel, P., Bergamaschi, P., Mak, J. E., Meirink, J. F., Lowe, D., Krol, M. C.,...Röckmann, T. (2007). What Do 14Co Measurements Tell US About Oh? : Volume 7, Issue 4 (19/07/2007). Retrieved from http://community.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON), Utrecht, the Netherlands. The possible use of 14CO measurements to constrain hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations in the atmosphere is investigated.14CO is mainly produced in the upper atmosphere from cosmic radiation. During transport to measurement locations at the Earth's surface 14CO is oxidized by OH. In this paper, the sensitivity of 14CO mixing ratio measurements to the 3-D OH distribution is assessed with the TM5 model. Simulated 14CO mixing ratios compare reasonably well with atmospheric measurements taken at five locations worldwide. As a next step, the sensitivity of 14CO measurements to OH is calculated with the adjoint TM5 model. For our sensitivity calculations the adjoint methodology outlined in the paper offers computational advantages compared to forward model calculations. The results indicate that 14CO measurements, especially those taken in the tropics, are sensitive to OH in a spatially confined region. Moreover, the OH sensitivity at a certain location varies strongly over time due to meteorological variability. On average, 14CO measurements are about 5 times more sensitive to OH at high latitudes than to OH in the tropics. Moreover, the measurements are sensitive to OH in the main 14CO source region in the upper atmosphere. It will therefore be difficult to assign model-measurement discrepancies to either the 14CO source uncertainty or to the OH sink. Nevertheless, the large distance between the 14CO source region and the measurement locations should allow the retrieval of information on OH. Specifically, the sensitivity to OH in the lower atmosphere during a relatively short time span may offer the possibility to constrain local OH. These efforts will strongly depend on the number of measurements available and on our ability to accurately model the 14CO transport.

Summary
What do 14CO measurements tell us about OH?

Excerpt
Bergamaschi, P., Frankenberg, C., Meirink, J. F., Krol, M., Dentener, F., Wagner, T., Platt, U., Kaplan, J. O., Körner, S., Heimann, M., Dlugokencky, E. J., and Goede, A.: Satellite chartography of atmospheric methane from SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT: (II) Evaluation based on inverse model simulations, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., D02304, doi:10.1029/2006JD007268, 2006.; Bergamaschi, P., Lowe, D. C., Manning, M. R., Moss, R., Bromley, T., and Clarkson, T. S.: Transects of atmospheric CO, CH4, and their isotopic composition across the Pacific: Shipboard measurements and validation of inverse models, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 106, 7993–8011, 2001.; Bousquet, P., Hauglustaine, D. A., Peylin, P., Carouge, C., and Ciais, P.: Two decades of OH variability as inferred by an inversion of atmospheric transport and chemistry of methyl chloroform, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2635–2656, 2005.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.: Measurement of the Abundance of (CO)-C-14 in the Atmosphere and the C-13 C-12 and O-18 O-16 Ratio of Atmospheric CO with Applications in New-Zealand and Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 98, 10 595–10 614, 1993.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M., Lowe, D. C., Manning, M. R., Sparks, R. J., and Velthoven, P. F. J. v.: The C-13, C-14 and O-18 isotopic composition of CO, CH4, and CO2 in the higher southern latitudes lower stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 100, 26 163–26 172, 1995.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M., Manning, M. R., Lowe, D. C., Wallace, G., Sparks, R. J., and VolzThomas, A.: Interhemispheric Asymmetry in OH Abundance Inferred from Measurements of Atmospheric (CO)-C-14, Nature, 356, 50–52, 1992.; Brühl, C. and Crutzen, P. J.: The MPIC 2D model, NASA Ref. Publ., 1292, 103–104, 1993.; Ganzeveld, L., Lelieveld, J., and Roelofs, G. J.: A dry deposition parameterization for sulfur oxides in a chemistry and general circulation model, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 103, 5679–5694, 1998.; Giering, R. and Kaminski, T.: Recipes for adjoint code construction, Acm Transactions on Mathematical Software, 24, 437–474, 1998.; Gros, V., Williams, J., Lawrence, M. G., von Kuhlmann, R., van Aardenne, J., Atlas, E., Chuck, A., Edwards, D. P., Stroud, V., and Krol, M.: Tracing the origin and ages of interlaced atmospheric pollution events over the tropical Atlantic Ocean with in situ measurements, satellites, trajectories, emission inventories, and global models, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D22306, doi:10.129/2004JD004846, 2004.; Libby, W. F.: Atmospheric Helium and radiocarbon from cosmic radiation, Phys. Rev., 69, 671–672, 1946.; Gros, V., Williams, J., van Aardenne, J. A., Salisbury, G., Hofmann, R., Lawrence, M. G., von Kuhlmann, R., Lelieveld, J., Krol, M., Berresheim, H., Lobert, J. M., and Atlas, E.: Origin of anthropogenic hydrocarbons and halocarbons measured in the summertime european outflow (on Crete in 2001), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 1223–1235, 2003.; Houweling, S., Kaminski, T., Dentener, F., Lelieveld, J., and Heimann, M.: Inverse modeling of methane sources and sinks using the adjoint of a global transport model, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 26 137–26 160, 1999.; Jöckel, P., and Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.: The seasonal cycle of cosmogenic (CO)-C-14 at the surface level: A solar cycle adjusted, zonal-average climatology based on observations, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 107, 4656, doi:10.1029/2001JD001104, 2002.; Jöckel, P., Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M., and Lawrence, M. G.: Atmospheric response time of cosmogenic (CO)-C-14 to changes in solar activity, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 105, 6737–6744, 2000.; Jöckel, P., Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M., Lawrence, M. G., Jeuken, A. B. M., and van Velthoven, P. F. J.: Evaluation of stratosphere-troposphere exchange and the hydroxyl radical distribution in three-dimensional global atmospheric models using observations of cosmogenic (CO)-C-14, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 107, 4446, doi:10.1029/2001JD001324, 2002

 

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