World Library  

QR link for Atmospheric Measurements of Ratios Between Co2 and Co-emitted Species from Traffic: a Tunnel Study in the Paris Megacity : Volume 14, Issue 23 (08/12/2014)
Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

Atmospheric Measurements of Ratios Between Co2 and Co-emitted Species from Traffic: a Tunnel Study in the Paris Megacity : Volume 14, Issue 23 (08/12/2014)

By Ammoura, L.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0003993559
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 12
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Atmospheric Measurements of Ratios Between Co2 and Co-emitted Species from Traffic: a Tunnel Study in the Paris Megacity : Volume 14, Issue 23 (08/12/2014)  
Author: Ammoura, L.
Volume: Vol. 14, Issue 23
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2014
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Sciare, J., Xueref-Remy, I., Chevallier, F., Ammoura, L., Bonsang, B., Perrussel, O.,...Bonnaire, N. (2014). Atmospheric Measurements of Ratios Between Co2 and Co-emitted Species from Traffic: a Tunnel Study in the Paris Megacity : Volume 14, Issue 23 (08/12/2014). Retrieved from http://community.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: LSCE, Unité mixte CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, UMR 8212, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette, France. Measurements of CO2, CO, NOx and selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) mole fractions were performed continuously during a 10-day period in the Guy Môquet tunnel in Thiais, a peri-urban area about 15 km south of the centre of Paris, between 28 September and 8 October 2012. This data set is used here to identify the characteristics of traffic-emitted CO2 by evaluating its ratios to co-emitted species for the first time in the Paris region. High coefficients of determination (r2 > 0.7) are observed between CO2 and certain compounds that are characteristic of the traffic source (CO, NOx, benzene, xylenes and acetylene). Weak correlations (r2 < 0.2) are found with species such as propane, n-butane and i-butane that are associated with fuel evaporation, an insignificant source for CO2. To better characterise the traffic signal we focus only on species that are well-correlated with CO2 and on rush-hour periods characterised by the highest traffic-related mole fractions. From those mole fractions we remove the nighttime-average weekday mole fraction obtained for each species that we infer to be the most appropriate background signal for our study. Then we calculate observed Δspecies / ΔCO2 ratios, which we compare with the ones provided by the 2010 bottom–up high-resolved regional emission inventory from Airparif (the association in charge of monitoring the air quality in Île-de-France), focusing on local emission data for the specific road of the tunnel. We find an excellent agreement (2%) between the local inventory emission CO / CO2 ratio and our observed ΔCO / ΔCO2 ratio. Former tunnel experiments carried out elsewhere in the world provided observed ΔCO / ΔCO2 ratios that differ from 49 to 592% to ours. This variability can be related to technological improvement of vehicles, differences in driving conditions, and fleet composition. We also find a satisfactory agreement with the Airparif inventory for n-propylbenzene, n-pentane and xylenes to CO2 ratios. For most of the other species, the ratios obtained from the local emission inventory overestimate the observed ratios to CO2 by 34 to more than 300%. However, the emission ratios of NOx, o-xylene and i-pentane are underestimated by 30 to 79%. One main cause of such high differences between the inventory and our observations is likely the obsolete feature of the VOCs speciation matrix of the inventory that has not been updated since 1998, although law regulations on some VOCs have occurred since that time. Our study bears important consequences, discussed in the conclusion, for the characterisation of the urban CO2 plume and for atmospheric inverse modelling of urban CO2 emissions.

Summary
Atmospheric measurements of ratios between CO2 and co-emitted species from traffic: a tunnel study in the Paris megacity

Excerpt
ADEME: Evolution du Marché, Caractéristiques Environnementales et Techniques, Véhicules Particuliers Neufs Vendus en France en 2013, available at: http://www2.ademe.fr/servlet/getDoc?id=52819&ref=&p1=111 (last access: April 2014), 2013.; Airparif: Bilan des Émissions de Polluants Atmosphériques et de Gaz à Effet de Serre en \^Ile- de-France pour l'Année 2010 et Historique 2000/05: Méthodologie et résultats, available at: http://www.airparif.asso.fr/_pdf/publications/Emissions_2010_CG75.pdf (last access: May 2014), 2013.; AtmoPACA: Les émissions dues aux transports routiers, available at: http://www.atmopaca.org/files/et/081105_AtmoPACA_note_synthese_transport_colloque_ORT.pdf (last access: March 2014), 2007.; Araizaga, A. E., Mancila, Y., and Mendoza, A.: Volatile organic compound emissions from light-duty vehicles in Monterrey, Mexico: a tunnel study, Int. J. Environ. Res., 7, 277–292, 2013.; Bishop, G. A. and Stedman, D. H.: A decade of on-road emissions measurements, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 1651–1656, doi:10.1021/es702413b, 2008.; Bosteels, D., May, J., Karlsson, H., and de Serves, C.: Regulated and Non-Regulated 25 Emissions From Modern European Passenger Cars, SAE Technical Paper Series, 2006-01-1516, 1–9, doi:10.4271/2006-01-1516, 2006.; Borbon, A., Gilman, J. B., Kuster, W. C., Grand, N., Chevaillier, S., Colomb, A., Dolgorouky, C., Gros, V., Lopez, M., Sarda-Esteve, R., Holloway, J., Stutz, J., Petetin, H., McKeen, S., Beekmann, M., Warneke, C., Parrish, D. D., and de Gouw, J. A.: Emission ratios of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds in northern mid-latitude megacities: observations versus emission inventories in Los Angeles and Paris, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 2041–2057, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50059, 2013.; Bradley, K. S., Brooks, K. B., Hubbard, L. K., Popp, P. J., and Stedman, D. H.: Motor vehicle fleet emissions by OP-FTIR, Environ. Sci. Technol., 34, 897–899, doi:10.1021/es9909226, 2000.; Bréon, F. M., Broquet, G., Puygrenier, V., Chevallier, F., Xueref-Rémy, I., Ramonet, M., Dieudonné, E., Lopez, M., Schmidt, M., Perrussel, O., and Ciais, P.: An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 14, 9647–9703, doi:10.5194/acpd-14-9647-2014, 2014.; Chirico, R., DeCarlo, P. F., Heringa, M. F., Tritscher, T., Richter, R., Prévôt, A. S. H., Dommen, J., Weingartner, E., Wehrle, G., Gysel, M., Laborde, M., and Baltensperger, U.: Impact of aftertreatment devices on primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation potential from in-use diesel vehicles: results from smog chamber experiments, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11545–11563, doi:10.5194/acp-10-11545-2010, 2010.; Duren, R. M. and Miller, C. E.: Measuring the carbon emissions of megacities, Nature Climate Change, 2, 560–562, 2012.; Gaimoz, C., Sauvage, S., Gros, V., Herrmann, F., Williams, J., Locoge, N., Perrussel, O., Bonsang, B., d'Argouges, O., Sarda-Esteve, R., and Sciare, J.: Volatile Organic Compounds sources in Paris in spring 2007, Part II: Source apportionment using positive matrix factorisation, Environ. Chem., 8, 91–103, doi:10.1071/en10067, 2011.; Gros, V., Gaimoz, C., Herrmann, F., Custer, T., Williams, J., Bonsang, B.

 

Click To View

Additional Books


  • Hydration and Dehydration at the Tropica... (by )
  • Missing Peroxy Radical Sources Within a ... (by )
  • Pah Concentrations Simulated with the Au... (by )
  • Source Apportionment of the Summer Time ... (by )
  • Towards a Climatology of Stratospheric B... (by )
  • Continental Scale Antarctic Deposition o... (by )
  • Implications of Model Bias in Carbon Mon... (by )
  • Classifying Previously Undefined Days fr... (by )
  • Understanding and Constraining Global Se... (by )
  • Understanding the Kinetics of the Clo Di... (by )
  • Investigations of the Photochemical Isot... (by )
  • Mixing Between a Stratospheric Intrusion... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.