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Wintertime Particulate Pollution Episodes in an Urban Valley of the Western US: a Case Study : Volume 12, Issue 6 (26/06/2012)

By Chen, L.-w. A.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003996190
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 36
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Wintertime Particulate Pollution Episodes in an Urban Valley of the Western US: a Case Study : Volume 12, Issue 6 (26/06/2012)  
Author: Chen, L.-w. A.
Volume: Vol. 12, Issue 6
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2012
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

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Chow, J. C., Dick, K., Watson, J. G., Inouye, D., Chen, L. A., & Green, M. C. (2012). Wintertime Particulate Pollution Episodes in an Urban Valley of the Western US: a Case Study : Volume 12, Issue 6 (26/06/2012). Retrieved from http://community.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89512, USA. This study investigates the causes of elevated PM2.5 concentrations and potential exceedences of the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in Truckee Meadows, Nevada, an urban valley of the Western US, during winter 2009/2010. Continuous PM2.5 mass and time-integrated chemical speciation data were acquired from a central valley monitoring site with meteorological measurements from nearby sites. All nine days with PM2.5>35 μg m−3 experienced 24-h average temperature inversion of 1.5–4.5 °C and snow cover of 8–18 cm. A stagnant atmospheric condition inhibited wind ventilation while highly reflective snow cover reduced daytime surface heating leading to persistent inversion. Elevated ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and water associated with it are most important to the PM2.5 exceedances during this unusually cold and snowy winter. An effective-variance chemical mass balance (EV-CMB) receptor model using locally-derived geological profiles and inorganic/organic markers identified secondary NH4NO3 (27–37%), residential wood combustion (RWC; 11–51%), and diesel engine exhausts (7–22%) as the major contributors to PM2.5. Paved road dust and de-icing materials were minor, but detectable contributors. RWC is a more important source than diesel for organic carbon (OC), but vice versa for elemental carbon (EC). A majority of secondary NH4NO3 is also associated with reactive nitrogen oxides (NOx) from RWC and diesel engines (including snow removal equipments). Findings from this study may apply to similar situations experienced by other urban valleys.

Summary
Wintertime particulate pollution episodes in an urban valley of the Western US: a case study

Excerpt
Ahmed, T., Dutkiewicz, V. A., Shareef, A., Tuncel, G., Tuncel, S., and Husain, L.: Measurement of black carbon (BC) by an optical method and a thermal-optical method: intercomparison for four sites, Atmos. Environ., 43, 6305–6311, 2009.; Aiken, A. C., DeCarlo, P. F., Kroll, J. H., Worsnop, D. R., Huffman, J. A., Docherty, K. S., Ulbrich, I. M., Mohr, C., Kimmel, J. R., Sueper, D., Sun, Y., Zhang, Q., Trimborn, A., Northway, M., Ziemann, P. J., Canagaratna, M. R., Onasch, T. B., Alfarra, M. R., Prevot, A. S. H., Dommen, J., Duplissy, J., Metzger, A., Baltensperger, U., and Jimenez, J. L.: O/C and OM/OC ratios of primary, secondary, and ambient organic aerosols with high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 4478–4485, 2008.; Bachmann, J. D.: Will the circle be unbroken: a history of the US national ambient air quality standards – 2007 critical review, J. Air Waste Manage., 57, 652–697, 2007.; Cadle, S. H., Mulawa, P., Groblicki, P., Laroo, C., Ragazzi, R. A., Nelson, K., Gallagher, G., and Zielinska, B.: In-use light-duty gasoline vehicle particulate matter emissions on three driving cycles, Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, 26–32, 2001.; Chakrabarty, R. K., Moosmüller, H., Chen, L.-W. A., Lewis, K., Arnott, W. P., Mazzoleni, C., Dubey, M. K., Wold, C. E., Hao, W. M., and Kreidenweis, S. M.: Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 6363–6370, doi:10.5194/acp-10-6363-2010, 2010.; Chen, L.-W. A., Doddridge, B. G., Dickerson, R. R., Chow, J. C., Mueller, P. K., Quinn, J., and Butler, W. A.: Seasonal variations in elemental carbon aerosol, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide: implications for sources, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1711–1714, 2001.; Chen, L.-W. A., Moosmüller, H., Arnott, W. P., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Susott, R. A., Babbitt, R. E., Wold, C., Lincoln, E., and Hao, W. M.: Particle emissions from laboratory combustion of wildland fuels: in situ optical and mass measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, 1–4, 2006.; Chen, L.-W. A., Moosmüller, H., Arnott, W. P., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Susott, R. A., Babbitt, R. E., Wold, C. E., Lincoln, E. N., and Hao, W. M.: Emissions from laboratory combustion of wildland fuels: emission factors and source profiles, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 4317–4325, 2007a.; Chen, L.-W. A., Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., and Magliano, K. L.: Quantifying PM2.5 source contributions for the San Joaquin Valley with multivariate receptor models, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 2818–2826, 2007b.; Chen, L.-W. A., Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., DuBois, D. W., and Herschberger,&n

 

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